Publications

2011 - Present

205. Buller, A.R.; Freeman, M.F.; Schildbach, J.F; Townsend, C. A. “Exploring the role of conformational heterogeneity in cis-autoproteolytic activation of ThnT” Biochemistry 2014, 53(26), 4273-4281.

204. Outlaw, V.K.; Wydysh, E.A.; Vadlamundi, A.; Medghalchi, S.M.; Townsend, C. A. “Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of 4- and 5-Substituted o-(Octanesulfonamido)benzoic Acids as Inhibitors of Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase” Med. Chem. Commun. 2014, 5, 826-830.

203. Newman, A.G.; Vagstad, A.L.; Storm, P.A.; Townsend, C. A. “Systematic Domain Swaps of Iterative, Non-reducing Polyketide Synthases Provide a Mechanistic Understanding and Rationale For Catalytic Reprogramming” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 7348-7362.

202. Gaudelli, N.M.; Townsend, C. A. “Epimerization and substrate gating by a TE domain in β-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis” Nat. Chem. Biol. 2014, 10, 251-258.

201. Li, R; Lloyd, E.P.; Moshos, K.A.; Townsend, C. A. “Identification and Characterization of the Carbapenem MM 4550 and its Gene Cluster in Streptomyces argenteolus ATCC 11009” Chembiochem 2014, 15(2), 320-331.

200. Townsend, C. A. “Enzymology: Modular biosynthesis branches out” Nature 2013, 502(7469), 44-45.

199. Belecki, K.; Townsend, C. A. “Biochemical Determination of Enzyme-Bound Metabolites: Preferential Accumulation of a Programmed Octaketide on the Enediyne Polyketide Synthase CalE8” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135(38), 14339-14348.

198. Gaudelli, N.M.; Townsend, C. A. “Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Peptide Thioesters Containing Modified Seryl Residues as Probes of Antibiotic Biosynthesis” J. Org. Chem. Soc. 2013, 78(13), 6412-6426. Selected as Featured Article

197. Phelan, R.M.; Townsend, C. A. “Mechanistic Insights into the Bifunctional Non-Heme Iron Oxygenase Carbapenem Synthase by Active Site Saturation Mutagenesis” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135(20), 7496-7502.

196. Buller, A.R.; Townsend, C. A. “Intrinsic Evolutionary Constraints on Protease Structure, Enzyme Acylation, and the Identity of the Catalytic Triad,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2013, 110(8), E653-661.

195. Davidsen, J.M.; Bartley, D.M.; Townsend, C. A. “Nonribosomal Propeptide Precursor in Nocardicin A Biosynthesis Predicted from Adenylation Domain Specificity Dependent on MbtH Family Protein NocI,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 1749-1759.

194. Vagstad, A.L.; Newman, A.G.; Storm, P.A.; Belecki, K.; Crawford, J.M.; Townsend, C. A. “Combinatorial Domain Swaps Provide Insights into the Rules of Fungal Polyketide Synthase Programming and the Rational Synthesis of Non-native Aromatic Products,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 1718-1721. Designated VIP: Very Important Paper

193. Labonte, J.W.; Townsend, C. A. “Active Site Comparisons and Catalytic Mechanisms of the Hot Dog Superfamily,” Chem. Rev. 2013, 113(3), 2182-2204.

192. Vagstad, A.L.; Hill, E.A.; Labonte, J.W.; Townsend, C. A. “Characterization of a Fungal Thioesterase Having Claisen Cyclase and Deacetylase Activities in Melanin Biosynthesis,” Chem. & Biol. 2012, 19, 1525-1534.

191. Newman, A.G.; Vagstad, A.L.; Belecki, K.B.; Scheerer, J.R.; Townsend, C.A. “Analysis of the cercosporin polyketide synthase CTB1 reveals a new fungal thioesterase function,” Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 11772-11774

190. Belecki, K.; Townsend, C.A. “Environmental Control of the Calicheamicin Polyketide Synthase Leads to Detection of a Programmed Octaketide and a Proposal for Enediyne Biosynthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 11316-11319.

189. Labonte, J.W.; Kudo, F.; Freeman, M.F.; Raber, M.L.; Townsend, C. A. “Engineering the synthetic potential of beta-lactam synthetase and the importance of catalytic loop dynamics,” MedChemComm 2012, 3, 960-966.

188. Foulke-Abel, J.; Townsend, C. A. “Demonstration of Starter Unit Interprotein Transfer from a Fatty Acid Synthase to a Multidomain, Nonreducin Polyketide Synthase,” ChemBioChem 2012, 13, 1880-1884.

187. Buller, A. R.; Labonte, J. W; Freeman, M. R.; Wright, N. T.; Schildbach J. F.; Townsend, C. A. “Autoproteolytic Activtion of ThnT Results in Structural Reorganization Necessary for Substrate Binding and Catalysis,” J. Mol. Biol. 2012, 422, 508-518.

186. Phelan, R. M.; DiPardo, B. J.; Townsend, C. A. “A High-Throughput Screen for the Engineered Production of beta-Lactam Antibiotics,” ACS Chem. Biol. 2012, 7, 835-840.

185. Vagstad, A. L.; Bumpus, S. B.; Belecki, K.; Kelleher, N.L.; Townsend, C. A. “Interrogation of Global Active Site Occupancy of a Fungal Iterative Polyketide Synthase Reveals Strategies for Maintaining Biosynthetic Fidelity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 6865-6877.

184. Jensen, K.; Niederkruger, H.; Zimmermann, K.; Vagstad, A. L.; Moldenhauer, J.; Brendel, N.; Frank, S.; Poplau, P.; Kohlhaas, C.; Townsend, C. A.; Oldiges, M.; Hertweck, C.; Piel, J. “Polyketide Proofreading by an Acyltransferase-like Enzyme,” Chem. & Biol. 2012, 19, 329-339.

183. Davidsen, J. M.; Townsend, C. A. “In Vivo Characterization of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthases NocA and NocB in the Biosynthesis of Nocardicin A,” Chem. & Biol. 2012, 19, 297-306.

182. Buller, A. R.; Freeman, M. R.; Wright, N. T.; Schildbach J. F.; Townsend, C. A. “Insights into cis-autoproteolysis reveal a reactive state formed through conformational rearrangement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2012, 109, 2308-2313.

181. Townsend, C. A. “A Diels-Alderase at Last,” ChemBioChem. 2011, 12, 2267-2269.

180. Bodner, M. J.; Li, R. F.; Phelan, R. M.; Freeman, M. F.; Moshos, K. A.; Lloyd, E. P.; Townsend, C. A. “Definition of the Common and Divergent Steps in Carbapenem beta-Lactam Antibiotic Biosynthesis,” ChemBioChem. 2011, 12, 2159-2165.

179. Kuhajda, F. P.; Aja, S.; Tu, Y.; Han, W. F.; Medghalchi, S. M.; El Meskini, R.; Landree, L. E.; Peterson, J. M.; Daniels, K.; Wong, K.; Wydysh, E. A.; Townsend, C. A.; Ronnett, G. V. “Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity,” Am. J. Physiol-Reg. I. 2011, 301, 116-130.

2006 - 2010

178. Crawford, J. M.; Townsend, C. A. “New insights into the formation of fungal aromatic polyketides,” Nature Rev. Microbiol. 2010, 12, 879-889.

177. Wydysh, E. A.; Vadlamudi, A.; Medghalchi, S. M.; Townsend, C. A. “Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of conformationally constrained glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibitors,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2010, 18, 6470-6479.

176. Ehrlich, K. C.; Chang, P.-K.; Scharfenstein, L. L., Jr.; Cary, J. W.; Crawford, J. M.; Townsend, C. A. “Absence of the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene, norA, Allows Accumulation of Deoxyaflatoxin B1 in Aspergillus flavus Cultures ,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2010, 305, 65-70.

175. Korman, T. P.; Crawford, J. M.; Labonte, J. W.; Newman, A. G.; Wong, J.; Townsend, C. A.; Tsai, S.-C. “Structure and Function of an Iterative Polyketide Synthase Thioesterase Domain Catalyzing Claisen Cyclization in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2010, 107, 6246-6251.

174. Bodner, M. J.; Phelan, R. M.; Freeman, M. F.; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “Non-Heme Iron Oxygenases Generate Natural Structural Diversity in Carbapenem Antibiotics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 12-13.

173. Raber, M. L.; Castillo, A.; Greer, A.; Townsend, C. A. “A Conserved Lysine in β-Lactam Synthetase Assists Ring Cyclization: Implications for Clavam and Carbapenem Biosynthesis,” ChemBioChem 2009, 10, 2904-2912.

172. Bodner, M. J.; Phelan, R. M.; Townsend, C. A. “A Catalytic Asymmetric Route to Carbapenems,” Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 3606-3609.

171. Belecki, K.; Crawford, J. M.; Townsend, C. A. “Production of Octaketide Polyenes by the Calicheamicin Polyketide Synthase CalE8: Implications for the Biosynthesis of Enediyne Core Structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 12564-12566.

170. Crawford, J. M.; Korman, T. P.; Labonte, J. W.; Vagstad, A. L.; Hill, E. A.; Kamari-Bidkorpeh, O.; Tsai, S.-C.; Townsend, C. A. “Structural Basis for Biosynthetic Programming of Fungal Aromatic Polyketide Cyclization,” Nature 2009, 461, 1139-1143. [News and Views: Nature 2009, 461, 1068-1069; Research Highlight: Nature Rev. Microbiol. 2009, 7, 842.]

169. Sokha, T.; Heins, R. A.; Phelan, R. M.; Greisler, J. M.; Townsend, C. A.; Ostermeier, M. “An Externally Tunable Bacterial Band-Pass Filter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2009, 106, 10135-10140.

168. Raber, M. L.; Arnett, S. O.; Townsend, C. A. “A Conserved Tyrosyl-Glutamyl Catalytic Dyad in Evolutionarily Linked Enzymes: Carbapenam Synthetase and β-Lactam Synthetase,” Biochemistry 2009, 48, 4959-4971.

167. Wydysh, E. A.; Medghalchi, S. M.; Vadlamudi, A.; Townsend, C. A. “Design and Synthesis of Small Molecule Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase Inhibitors,” J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 3317-3327.

166. Phelan, R. M.; Ostermeier, M.; Townsend, C. A. “Design and Synthesis of a β-Lactamase Activated 5-Fluorouracil Prodrug,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009, 19, 1261-1263.

165. Raber, M. L.; Freeman, M. F.; Townsend, C. A. “Dissection of the Stepwise Mechanism to β-Lactam Formation and Elucidation of a Rate-determining Conformational Change in β-Lactam Synthetase,” J. Biol. Chem. 2009, 284, 207-217.

164. Davidsen, J. M.; Townsend, C. A. “Identification and Characterization of NocR as a Positive Transcriptional Regulator of the β-Lactam Nocardicin A in Nocardia uniformis,” J. Bacteriol. 2009, 191, 1066-1077.

163. Freeman, M. F.; Moshos, K. A.; Bodner, M. L.; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “Four Enzymes Define the Incorporation of Coenzyme A in Thienamycin Biosynthesis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2008, 105, 11128-11133. [Spotlight: ACS Chem. Biol. 2008, 9, 518-523.]

162. Crawford, J. M.; Thomas, P. M.; Scheerer, J. R.; Vagstad, A. L.; Kelleher, N. L.; Townsend, C. A. “Deconstruction of Iterative Multidomain Polyketide Synthase Function,” Science 2008, 320, 243-246. [Research Highlight: Nature Rev. Microbiol. 2008, 6, 414-415.]

161. Crawford, J. M.; Vagstad, A. L.; Ehrlich, K. C.; Udwary, D. W.; Townsend, C. A. “Acyl-Carrier Protein-Phosphopantetheinyltransferase Partnerships in Fungal Fatty Acid Synthases,” ChemBioChem 2008, 9, 1559-1563.

160. Aja, S.; Landree, L. E.; Kleman, A. M.; Medghalchi, S. M.; Vadlamudi, A.; McFadden, J. M.; Aplasca, A.; Hyun, J.; Plummer, E.; Daniels, K.; Kemm, M.; Townsend, C. A.; Thupari, J. N.; Kuhajda, F. P.; Moran, T. H.; Ronnett, G. V. “Pharmacological Stimulation of Brain Carnitine Palmitoyl-Transferase-1 Decreases Food Intake and Body Weight,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2008, 294, R352-R361.

159. Crawford, J. M.; Vagstad, A. L.; Whitworth, K. P.; Ehrlich, K. C.; Townsend, C. A. “Synthetic Strategy of Nonreducing Iterative Polyketide Synthases and the Origin of the Classical ‘Starter Unit Effect’,” ChemBioChem 2008, 9, 1019-1023.

158. Crawford, J. M.; Vagstad, A. L.; Ehrlich, K. C.; Townsend, C. A. “Starter Unit Specificity Directs Genome Mining of Polyketide Synthase Pathways in Fungi,” Bioorg. Chem. 2008, 36, 16-22.

157. Merski, M.; Townsend, C. A. “Observation of an Acryloyl–Thiamin Diphosphate Adduct in the First step of Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 15750-15751.

156. Arnett, S. O.; Gerratana, B.; Townsend, C. A. “Rate-Limiting Steps and Role of Active Site Lys443 in the Mechanism of Carbapenem Synthase,” Biochemistry 2007, 46, 9337-9345. [selected as a 2007 Hot Article]

155. Zhou, W.; Han, W. F.; Landree, L. E.; Thupari, J. N.; Pinn, M. L.; Bililign, T.; Kim E. K.; Vadlamudi, A.; Medghalchi, S. M.; El Meskini, R.; Ronnett, G. V.; Townsend, C. A.; Kuhajda, F. P. “Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibition Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in SKOV3 Human Ovarian Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 2007, 67, 2964-2971.

154. Crawford, J. M.; Dancy, B. C. R.; Hill, E. A.; Udwary, D. W.; Towsend, C. A. “Identification of a Starter-Unit Acyl-Carrier Protein Transacylase Domain in an Iterative Type I Polyketide Synthase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2006, 103, 16728-16733.

153. Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “Rational Strain Improvement for Enhanced Clavulanic Acid Production by Genetic Engineering of the Glycolytic Pathway in Streptomyces clavuligerus,” Metabol. Eng. 2006, 8, 240-252.

152. Hughes, M. A.; Townsend, C. A. “Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Drug-Induced Changes in Mycobacteria,” J. Proteome Res. 2006, 5, 54-63.

151. Muller, U.; van Assema, F.; Gunsior, M.; Orf, S.; Kremer, S.; Schipper, D.; Wagemans, A.; Townsend, C; Sonke, T.; Bovenberg, R.; Wubbolts, M. “Metabolic Engineering of the E. coli l-Phenylalanine pathway for the production of d-Phenylglycine (d-Phg),” Metabol. Eng. 2006, 8, 196-208.

2001 - 2005

150. Hughes, M. A.; McFadden, J. M.; Townsend, C. A. “New α-Methylene-γ-Butyrolactones with Antimycobacterial Properties,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2005, 15, 3857-3859.

149. Henry, K. M.; Townsend, C. A. “Ordering the Reductive and Cytochrome P450 Oxidative Steps in Demethylsterigmatocystin Formation Yields New Insights into Xanthone Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3724-3733.

148. Henry, K. M.; Townsend, C. A. “The Synthesis and Fate of o-Carboxybenzophenones in the Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3300-3309.

147. McFadden, J. M.; Medghalchi, S. M.; Thupari, J. N.; Pinn, M, L.; Vadlamudi, A.; Miller, K. I.; Kuhajda, F. P.; Townsend, C. A. “Application of a Flexible Synthesis of (5R)-Thiolactomycin to Develop New Inhibitors of Type I Fatty Acid Synthase,” J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 946-961.

146. Kelly, W. L.; Townsend, C. A. “Mutational Analysis of nocK and nocL in the Nocardicin A Producer Nocardia uniformis,” J. Bacteriol. 2005, 187, 739-746.

145. Gerratana, B.; Arnett, S. O.; Stapon, A.; Townsend, C. A. “Carboxymethylproline Synthase from Pectobacterium carotovora: A Multi-faceted Member of the Crotonase Superfamily,” Biochemistry 2004, 43, 15936-15945.

144. Kelly, W. L.; Townsend, C. A. “Mutational Analysis and Characterization of Nocardicin C-9′ Epimerase,” J. Biol. Chem. 2004, 279, 38220-38227.

143. Parrish, N. M.; Ko, C. G.; Hughes, M. A.; Townsend, C. A.; Dick, J. D. “Effect of n-Octanesulphonylacetamide (OSA) on ATP and Protein Expression in Mycobacterium bovis BCG,” J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2004, 54, 722-729.

142. Chiou, C. H.; Lee, L. W.; Owens, S. A.; Whallon, J. H.; Klomparens, K. L.; Townsend, C. A.; Linz, J. E. “Distribution and Sub-Cellular Localization of the Aflatoxin Enzyme Versicolorin B Synthase in Time-Fractionated Colonies of Aspergillus parasiticus,&rtquo; Arch. Microbiol. 2004, 182, 67-79.

141. Gunsior, M.; Breazeale, S. D.; Lind, A. J.; Ravel, J.; Janc, J. W.; Townsend, C. A. “The Biosynthetic Gene Cluster for a Monocyclic β-Lactam Antibiotic, Nocardicin A,” Chem. & Biol. 2004, 11, 927-938.

140. Gunsior, M.; Ravel, J.; Challis, G. L.; Townsend, C. A. “Engineering p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase to a p-Hydroxymandelate Synthase and Evidence for the Proposed Benzene Oxide Intermediate in Homogentisate Formation,” Biochemistry 2004, 43, 663-674.

139. Stapon, A.; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “Synthesis of (3S,5R)-carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid and its role in carbapenem biosynthesis and the stereoinversion problem,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 15746-15747.

138. Zhou, W.; Simpson, P. J.; McFadden, J. M.; Townsend, C. A.; Medghalchi, S. M.; Vadlamudi, A.; Pinn, M. L.; Ronnett, G. V.; Kuhajda, F. P. “Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibition Triggers Apotosis During S Phase in Human Cells,” Cancer Res. 2003, 63, 7330-7337.

137. Miller, M. T.; Gerratana, B.; Stapon, A.; Townsend, C. A.; Rosenzweig, A. C. “Crystal Stucture of Carbapenem Synthetase (CarA),” J. Biol. Chem. 2003, 278, 40996-41002.

136. Gerratana, B.; Stapon, A.; Townsend, C. A. “Inhibition and Alternate Substrate Studies on the Mechanism of Carbapenam Synthetase from Erwinia carotovora,” Biochemistry 2003, 42, 7836-7847.

135. Stapon, A; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “Carbapenem Biosynthesis: Confirmation of Stereochemical Assignments and the Role of CarC in the Ring Stereoinversion Process from l-Proline,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 8486-8493.

134. McFadden, J. M.; Frehywot, G. L.; Townsend, C. A. “A Flexible Route to (5R)-Thiolactomycin, a Naturally-Occurring Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Synthesis,” Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 3859-3862.

133. Miller, M. T.; Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A.; Rosenzweig, A. C. “The Catalytic Cycle of β-Lactam Synthetase Observed by x-Ray Crystallographic Snapshots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99, 14752-14757.

132. Udwary, D. W.; Merski, M.; Townsend, C. A. “A Method for Prediction of the Locations of Linker Regions Within Large Multifunctional Proteins, and Application to a Type I Polyketide Synthase,” J. Mol. Biol. 2002, 323, 585-598.

131. Kim, E.-K.; Miller, I.; Landree, L. E.; Borisy-Rudin, F. F.; Brown, P.; Tihan, T.; Townsend, C. A.; Witters, L. A.; Moran, T. H.; Kuhajda, F. P.; Ronnett, G. V. “Expression of FAS Within Hypothalmic Neurons: A Model for Decreased Food Intake After C75 Treatment,” Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002, 283, E867-E879.

130. Watanabe, C. M. H.; Townsend, C. A. “Initial Characterization of a Type I Fatty Acid Synthase and Polyketide Synthase Multienzyme Complex NorS in the Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin B1,” Chem. & Biol. 2002, 9, 981-988.

129. Townsend, C. A. “New Reactions in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2002, 6, 583-589.

128. Kelly, W. L; Townsend, C. A. “Role of the Cytochrome P450 NocL in Nocardicin A Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 8186-8187.

127. Udwary, D. W.; Casillas, L. K.; Townsend, C. A. “Synthesis of 11-Hydroxyl O-Methylsterigmatocystin and the Role of a Cytochrome P-450 in the Final Step of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 5294-5303.

126. Miller, M. T.; Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A.; Rosenzweig, A. C. “Stucture of β-Lactam Synthetase Reveals How To Synthesize Antibiotics Instead of Asparagine,” Nature Struct. Biol. 2001, 8, 684-689.

125. Hitchman, T. S.; Schmidt, E. W.; Trail, F.; Rarick, M. D.; Linz, J. E.; Townsend, C. A. “Hexanoate Synthase, a Specialized Type I Fatty Acid Synthase from Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis,” Bioorg. Chem. 2001, 29, 293-307.

124. Zhou, J.; Kelly, W. L.; Bachmann, B. O.; Gunsior, M.; Townsend, C. A.; Solomon, E. I. “Spectroscopic Studies of Substrate Interactions with Clavaminate Synthase 2, a Multifunctional α-KG-Dependent Non-Heme Iron Enzyme: Correlation with Mechanisms and Reactivities,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 7388-7398.

123. Parrish, N. M.; Houston, T.; Jones, P. B.; Townsend, C. A.; Dick, J. D. “In Vitro Activity of a Novel Antimicrobial Compound, N-Octanesulfonylacetamide, and Its Effects on Lipid and Mycolic Acid Synthesis,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2001, 45, 1143-1150.

1996 - 2000

122. Wu, M.; Stoermer, D.; Tullius, T. D.; Townsend, C. A. “Calicheamicin-Homeodomain Conjugate as an Efficient, Sequence-Specific DNA Cleavage and Mapping Tool,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 12884-12885.

121. Li, R.; Stapon, A.; Blanchfield, J. T.; Townsend, C. A. “Three Unusual Reactions Mediate Carbapenem and Carbapenam Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 9296-9297.

120. Jones, P. B.; Parrish, N. M.; Houston, T. A.; Stapon, A. S.; Bansal, N. P.; Dick, J. D.; Townsend, C. A. “A New Class of Anti-Tuberculosis Agents,” J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 3304-3314.

119. Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A. “Kinetic Mechanism of the β-Lactam Synthetase of Streptomyces clavuligerus,” Biochemistry 2000, 39, 11187-11193.

118. Loftus, T. M.; Jaworsky D. E.; Frehywot, G. L.; Townsend, C. A.; Ronnett, G. V.; Lane, M. D.; Kuhajda, F. P. “Reduced Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice Treated with Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors,” Science 2000, 288, 2379-2381.

117. Khaleeli, N.; Busby, R. W.; Townsend, C. A. “Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Biochemical Analysis of the Endogenous Ligands in the Ferrous Active Site of Clavaminate Synthase. The His-3 Variant of the 2-His-1-Carboxylate Model,” Biochemistry 2000, 39, 8666-8673.

116. Kuhajda, F. P.; Pizer, E. S.; Li J. N.; Mani, N. S.; Frehywot, G. L.; Townsend, C. A. “Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of an Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Synthase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2000, 97, 3450-3454.

115. Li, R.; Khaleeli, N.; Townsend, C. A. “Expansion of the Clavulanic Acid Gene Cluster: Identification and In Vivo Functional Analysis of Three New Genes Required for the Biosynthesis of Clavulanic Acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus,” J. Bacteriol. 2000, 182, 4087-4095.

114. Pizer, E. S.; Thupari, J.; Han, W. F.; Pinn, M. L.; Chrest, F. J.; Frehywot, G. L.; Townsend, C. A.; Kuhajda, F. P. “Malonyl-Coenzyme-A Is a Potential Mediator of Cytotoxicity Induced by Fatty-Acid Synthase Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells and Xenografts,” Cancer Res. 2000, 60, 213-218.

113. Challis, G. L.; Ravel, J.; Townsend, C. A. “Predictive, Structure-Based Model of Amino Acid Recognition by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Adenylation Domains,” Chemistry & Biology 2000, 7, 211-224.

112. Keller, N. P.; Watanabe, C. M. H.; Kelkar, H. S.; Adams, T. H.; Townsend, C. A. "Requirement of Monooxygenase-Mediated Steps for Sterigmatocystin Biosynthesis by Aspergillus nidulans," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000, 66, 359-362.

111. Khaleeli, N.; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “Origin of the β-Lactam Carbons in Clavulanic Acid from an Unusual Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Mediated Reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9223-9224. [See also: Cane, D. E. “Perspectives: Biosynthetic Pathways: Biosynthesis Meets Bioinformatics,” Science 2000, 287, 818-819.]

110. Iwata-Reuyl, D.; Basak, A.; Townsend, C. A. “β-Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Clavaminate Synthase-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Proclavaminic Acid and in Related Azetidinone Model Reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 11356-11368.

109. Graybill, T. L.; Casillas, E. G.; Pal, K.; Townsend, C. A. “Silyl Triflate-Mediated Ring-Closure and Rearrangement in the Synthesis of Potential Bisfuran-Containing Intermediates of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 7729-7746.

108. Casillas, L. K.; Townsend, C. A. “Total Synthesis of O-Methylsterigmatocystin Using N-Alkylnitrilium Salts and Carbonyl-Alkene Interconversion in a New Xanthone Synthesis,” J. Org. Chem. 1999, 64, 4050-4059.

107. Zhou, J.; Gunsior, M.; Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A.; Solomon, E. I. “Substrate Binding to the α-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Non-Heme Iron Enzyme Clavaminate Synthase 2: Coupling Mechanism of Oxidative Decarboxylation and Hydroxylation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 13539-13540.

106. Reeve, A. M.; Townsend, C. A. “Inhibitors of an AdoMet-Dependent 3-Amino-3-Carboxypropyl Transferase and Their Use as Ligands for Protein Affinity Chromatography,” Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 15959-15974.

105. Bachmann, B. O.; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “β-Lactam Synthetase: A New Biosynthetic Enzyme,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1998, 95, 9082-9086.

104. Reeve, A. M.; Breazeale, S. D.; Townsend, C. A. “Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of an S-Adenosylmethionine-Dependent 3-Amino-3-Carboxypropyltransferase in Nocardicin Biosynthesis,” J. Biol. Chem. 1998, 273, 30695-30703.

103. Watanabe, C. M. H.; Townsend, C. A. “The in Vitro Conversion of Norsolorinic Acid to Aflatoxin B1. An Improved Method of Cell-Free Enzyme Preparation and Stabilization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 6231-6239.

102. Pavel, E. G.; Zhou, J.; Busby, R. W.; Gunsior, M.; Townsend, C. A.; Solomon, E. I. “Circular Dichroism and Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopic Studies of the Non-Heme Ferrous Active Site in Clavaminate Synthase and Its Interaction with α-Ketoglutarate Cosubstrate,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 743-753.

101. Pitlik, J.; Townsend, C. A. “Solution-Phase Synthesis of a Combinatorial Monocyclic β-Lactam Library: Potential Protease Inhibitors,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1997, 7, 3129-3134.

100. Townsend, C. A. “Structural Studies of Natural Product Biosynthetic Proteins,” Chem. & Biol. 1997, 4, 721-730.

99. Pitlik, J.; Townsend, C. A. “Efficient Syntheses of Multiply 2H- and 13C-Labeled Acrylic Acid, Glyceric Acid, Glycidic Acid and Glycerol,” J. Labelled Compd. Radiopharm. 1997, 39, 999-1009.

98. Minto, R. E.; Townsend, C. A. “Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis,” Chem. Rev. 1997, 97, 2537-2555.

97. Townsend, C. A.; Minto, R. E. “Biosynthesis of Aflatoxins,” in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry, Barton, D. H. R., Nakanishi, K., Eds.; Vol. 1, Sankawa, U., Ed.; Elsevier Science Ltd.: Oxford; 1999, pp. 443-471.

96. Miller, A. -F.; Egan, L. A.; Townsend, C. A. “Measurement of the Degree of Coupled Isotope Enrichment of Different Positions in an Antibiotic Peptide by NMR,” J. Mag. Res. 1997, 125, 120-131.

95. Pitlik, J.; Townsend, C. A. “The Fate of [2,3,3-2H3, 1,2-13C2]-d,l-Glycerate in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis,” Chem. Commun. 1997, 225-226.

94. Mani, N. S.; Townsend, C. A. “A Concise Synthesis of (+)-Cerulenin from a Chiral Oxiranyllithium,” J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 636-640.

93. Egan, L. A.; Busby, R. W.; Iwata-Reuyl, D.; Townsend, C. A. “The Probable Role of Clavaminic Acid as the Terminal Intermediate in the Common Pathway to Clavulanic Acid and the Antipodal Clavam Metabolites,&rdquot; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 2348-2355.

92. Silva, J. C.; Townsend, C. A. “Heterologous Expression, Isolation, and Characterization of Versicolorin B Synthase from Aspergillus parasiticus: A Key Enzyme in the Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthetic Pathway,” J. Biol. Chem. 1997, 272, 804-813.

91. Watanabe, C. H. M.; Wilson, D.; Linz, J. E.; Townsend, C. A. “Demonstration of the Catalytic Roles and Evidence for the Physical Association of Type I Fatty Acid Synthases and a Polyketide Synthase in the Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin B1,” Chem. & Biol. 1996, 3, 463-469.

90. McGuire, S. M.; Silva, J. C.; Casillas, E. G.; Townsend, C. A. “Purification and Characterization of Versicolorin B Synthase from Aspergillus parasiticus. Catalysis of the Stereodifferentiating Cyclization in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Essential to DNA Interaction,” Biochemistry 1996, 35, 11470-11486.

89. Silva, J. C.; Minto, R. E.; Barry III, C. E.; Holland, K. A.; Townsend, C. A. “Isolation and Characterization of the Versicolorin B Synthase Gene from Aspergillus parasiticus: Expansion of the Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthetic Gene Cluster,” J. Biol. Chem. 1996, 271, 13600-13608.

88. Busby, R. W.; Townsend, C. A. “A Single Monomeric Iron Center in Clavaminate Synthase Catalyzes Three Non-Successive Oxidative Transformations,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1996, 4, 1059-1064.

87. Watanabe, C. M. H.; Townsend, C. A. “Incorporation of Molecular Oxygen in Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis,” J. Org. Chem. 1996, 61, 1990-1993.

86. Chatterjee, M.; Smith, P. J.; Townsend, C. A. “The Role of the Aminosugar and Helix Binding in the Thiol-Induced Activation of Calicheamicin for DNA Cleavage,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 1938-1948.

1991 - 1995

85. Chatterjee, M.; Mah, S. C.; Tullius, T. D.; Townsend, C. A. “Role of the Aryl Iodide in the Sequence-Selective Cleavage of DNA by Calicheamicin. Importance of Thermodynamic Binding vs. Kinetic Activation in the Cleavage Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 8074-8082.

84. Wu, T.-K.; Houston, T. A.; Busby, R. W.; McIlwaine, D. B.; Egan, L. A.; Townsend, C. A. "Identification, Cloning, Sequencing and Over-Expression of the Gene Encoding Proclavaminate Amidino Hydrolase and Characterization of Protein Function in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis," J. Bacteriol. 1995, 177, 3714-3720.

83. Kuduvalli, P. N.; Townsend, C. A.; Tulllius, T. D. “Cleavage by Calicheamicin γ1I of DNA in a Nucleosome Formed on the 5S RNA Gene of Xenopus borealis,” Biochemistry 1995, 34, 3899-3906.

82. Janc, J. W.; Egan, L. A.; Townsend, C. A. "Purification and Characterization of Clavaminate Synthase from Streptomyces antibioticus: A Multifunctional Enzyme of Clavam Biosynthesis," J. Biol. Chem. 1995, 270, 5399-5404.

81. Busby, R. W.; Chang, M. D.-T.; Busby, R. C.; Wimp, J.; Townsend, C. A. "Expression and Purification of Two Isozymes of Clavaminate Synthase and Initial Characterization of the Iron Binding Site. General Error Analysis in PCR Amplification," J. Biol. Chem. 1995, 270, 4262-4269.

80. Chatterjee, M.; Cramer, K. D.; Townsend, C. A. "Kinetic vs. Thermodynamic Determinants in the Sequence Selectivity of DNA Cleavage by Calicheamicin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116, 8819-8820.

79. Chatterjee, M.; Townsend, C. A. "Evidence for the Probable Final Steps in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis," J. Org. Chem. 1994, 59, 4424-4429.

78. Mah, S. C.; Price, M. A.; Townsend, C. A.; Tullius, T. D. "Features of DNA Recognition for Oriented Binding and Cleavage by Calicheamicin," A Symposium-in-Print, Tetrahedron 1994, 50, 1361-1378.

77. Mah, S. C.; Townsend, C. A.; Tullius, T. D. "Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting of Calicheamicin. Relationship of DNA Binding to Cleavage," Biochemistry 1994, 33, 614-621.

76. De Voss, J. J.; Hangeland, J. J.; Townsend, C. A. "A General Approach to the Synthesis of Specifically Deuterium-Labeled Nucleosides," J. Org. Chem. 1994, 59, 2715-2723.

75. Brobst, S. W.; Townsend, C. A. "The Potential Role of Fatty Acid Initiation in the Biosynthesis of the Fungal Aromatic Polyketide Aflatoxin B1," Ian Spenser commemorative issue of Can. J. Chem. 1994, 72, 200-207.

74. McIlwaine, D. B.; Townsend, C. A. "Evidence for Distinct Mechanisms of Monocyclic b-Lactam Biosynthesis," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1993, 1346-1347.

73. Janc, J. W.; Egan, L. A.; Townsend, C. A. "Emerging Evidence for a Shared Biosynthetic Pathway Among Clavulanic Acid and the Structurally Diverse Clavam Metabolites," A Symposium-in-Print, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letters 1993, 3, 2313-2316.

72. Iwata-Reuyl, D.; Basak, A.; Silverman, L. S.; Engle, C. A.; Townsend, C. A. "Synthesis and Reaction of Potential Mechanism-Based Inhibitors of Clavaminate Synthase," Edward Leete memorial issue of J. Nat. Prod. 1993, 56, 1373-1396.

71. McGuire, S. M.; Townsend, C. A. "Demonstration of Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation and the Course of Cyclization in Bisfuran Ring Formation During Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis," Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Letters 1993, 3, 653-656.

70. Ellestad, G. A.; Zein, N.; Ding, W-D.; Townsend, C. A. "DNA Cleaving Properties of Calicheamicin g1I." In Enediyne Antibiotics as Antitumor Agents; Borders, D. B.; Doyle, T. W., Eds.; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1995, pp. 137-160.

69. Chatterjee, M.; Cramer, K. D.; Townsend, C. A. "The Kinetic Nature of Thiol Activation in DNA Cleavage by Calicheamicin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 3374-3375.

68. Townsend, C. A. "Oxidative Amino Acid Processing in b-Lactam Antibiotic Biosynthesis," Trans. Biochem. Soc. 1993, 21, 208-213.

67. Hangeland, J. J.; De Voss, J. J.; Heath, J. A.; Townsend, C. A.; Ding, W.-d.; Ashcroft, J. S.; Ellestad, G. A. "Specific Abstraction of the 5'S- and 4'-Deoxyribosyl Hydrogen Atoms From DNA by Calicheamicin g1I," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 9200-9202.

66. Marsh, E. N.; Chang, M. D.-T., Townsend, C. A. "Two Isoenzymes of Clavaminate Synthase Central to Clavulanic Acid Formation — Cloning and Sequencing of Both Genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus," Biochemistry 1992, 31, 12648-12657.

65. Iwata-Reuyl, D.; Townsend, C. A. "Common Origin of Clavulanic Acid and Other Clavam Metabolites in Streptomyces," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 2762-2763.

64. Townsend, C. A.; McGuire, S. M.; Brobst, S. W.; Graybill, T. L.; Pal, K.; Barry III, C. E. "Examination of Tetrahydro- and Dihydrobisfuran Formation in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis from Whole Cells to Purified Enzymes." In ACS Symposium Series, Secondary-Metabolite Biosynthesis and Metabolism; Petroski, R. J.; McCormick, S. P., Eds.; Plenum Press: New York, 1992; pp. 141-154.

63. Cramer, K. D.; Townsend, C. A. "Kinetics of Trisulfide Cleavage in Calicheamicin–Assessing the Role of the Ethylamino Group," Tetrahedron Lett. 1991, 32, 4635-4638.

62. Townsend, C. A.; Basak, A. "Experiments and Speculations on the Role of Oxidative Cyclization Chemistry in Natural Product Biosynthesis," A Symposium-in-Print, Tetrahedron 1991, 47, 2591-2602.

61. Salowe, S. P.; Krol, W. J.; Iwata-Reuyl, D.; Townsend, C. A. "Elucidation of the Order of Oxidations and Identification of an Intermediate in the Multi-Step Clavaminate Synthase Reaction," Biochemistry 1991, 30, 2281-2292.

60. Krol, W. J.; Mao, S.-s.; Steele, D. L.; Townsend, C. A. "Stereochemical Correlation of Proclavaminic Acid and Syntheses of erythro- and threo-L-b-Hydroxyornithine from an Improved Vinylglycine Synthon," J. Org. Chem. 1991, 56, 728-731.

1986 - 1990

59. De Voss, J. J.; Townsend, C. A.; Ding, W.-D.; Morton, G. O.; Ellestad, G. A.; Zein, N.; Tabor, A. B.; Schreiber, S. L. "Site-Specific Atom Transfer From DNA to a Bound Ligand Defines the Geometry of a DNA-Calicheamicin g1 Complex," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990, 112, 9669-9670.

58. De Voss, J. J.; Hangeland, J. J.; Townsend, C. A. "Characterization of the in vitro Cyclization Chemistry of Calicheamicin and its Relation to DNA Cleavage," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 4554-4556.

57. Salowe, S. P.; Marsh, E. N.; Townsend, C. A. "Purification and Characterization of Clavaminate Synthase from Streptomyces clavuligerus: An Unusual Oxidative Enzyme in Natural Product Biosynthesis," Biochemistry 1990, 29, 6499-6508.

56. Basak, A.; Salowe, S. P.; Townsend, C. A. "Stereochemical Course of the Key Ring-Forming Reactions in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 1654-1656.

55. Salituro, G. M.; Townsend, C. A. "Total Syntheses of (-)-Nocardicins A-G: A Biogenetic Approach," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 760-770.

54. McGuire, S. M.; Brobst, S. W.; Graybill, T. L.; Pal, K.; Townsend, C. A. "Partitioning of Tetrahydro- and Dihydrobisfuran Formation in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis by Cell-Free and Direct Incorporation Experiments," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 8308-8309.

53. Graybill, T. L.; Pal, K.; McGuire, S. M.; Brobst, S. W.; Townsend, C. A. "The Timing of Aromatic Deoxygenation in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 8306-8308.

52. Krol, W. J.; Basak, A.; Salowe, S. P.; Townsend, C. A. "Oxidative Cyclization Chemistry Catalyzed by Clavaminate Synthetase," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 7625-7627.

51. Townsend, C. A.; Isomura, Y.; Davis, S. G. "Reaction Models of the Oxidative Rearrangement of Averufin to 1'-Hydroxyversicolorone: The First Step in Dihydrobisfuran Formation in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis," A Symposium-in-Print, Tetrahedron 1989, 45, 2263-2276.

50. Wilson, B. A.; Bantia, S.; Salituro, G. M.; Holbrooks, A. McE.; Townsend, C. A. "Cell-Free Biosynthesis of Nocardicin A from Nocardicin E and S-Adenosylmethionine," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 100, 8238-8239.

49. Townsend, C. A.; Holbrooks, A. McE.; Salituro, G. M. "Stereochemical Fate of (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-[4-2H]Methionine in Nocardicin A Biosynthesis," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1988, 1579-1581.

48. Townsend, C. A.; Krol, W. J. "The Role of Molecular Oxygen in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Bacterial Oxidative Deamination," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1988, 1234-1236.

47. Townsend, C. A.; Whittamore, P. R. O.; Brobst, S. W. "Hydroxyversicolorone: Synthesis and Incorporation of a New Intermediate in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1988, 726–728.

46. Townsend, C. A.; Wilson, B. A. "The Role of Nocardicin G in Nocardicin A Biosynthesis," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 3320–3321.

45. Townsend, C. A.; Plavcan, K. A.; Pal, K.; Brobst, S. W.; Irish, M. S.; Ely, E. W., Jr.; Bennett, J. W. "Hydroxyversicolorone: Isolation and Characterization of a Potential Intermediate in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis," J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 2472–2477.

44. Townsend, C. A.; Brobst, S. W.; Ramer, S. E.; Vederas, J. C. "Stereochemical Features of Enoyl Thioester Reductase in Averufin and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 318–319.

43. Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B.; Davis, S. G. "Synthesis of Averufin and Its Role in Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis," J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I 1988, 839–861.

42. Townsend, C. A.; Mao, S.-s. "Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis: The Stereochemical Course of b-Lactam Formation from Chiral Glycerol," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1987, 86–89.

41. Townsend, C. A.; Salituro, G. M.; Nguyen, L. T.; DiNovi, M. J. "Biogenetically-Modelled Total Syntheses of (-)-Nocardicin A and (-)-Nocardicin G," Tetrahedron Lett. 1986, 27, 3819–3822.

40. Schwab, J. M.; Ho, C.-k.; Li, W.-b.; Townsend, C. A.; Salituro, G. M. "b-Hydroxy-decanoyl Thioester Dehydrase. Complete Characterization of the Fate of the 'Suicide' Substrate, 3-Decynoyl-NAC," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1986, 108, 5309–5316.

39. Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B. "Stereochemical Correlation of (-)-Averantin," Tetrahedron Lett. 1986, 27, 887–888.

38. Townsend, C. A.; Ho, M.-f.; Mao, S.-s. "The Stereochemical Fate of (2RS,5R)- and (2RS,5S)-[5-3H]Ornithine in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1986, 639–639.

37. Townsend, C. A. "Progress Toward a Biosynthetic Rationale of the Aflatoxin Pathway," Pure & Appl. Chem. 1986, 58, 227–238.

1981 - 1985

36. Townsend, C. A.; "The Stereochemical Fate of Chiral-Methyl Valines in Cephalosporin C Biosynthesis," Plenary Lecture at the International Research Congress on Natural Products, July, 1985, J. Nat. Prod. 1985, 48, 708–724.

35. Townsend, C. A.; Davis, S. G.; Koreeda, M.; Hulin, B. "A Cationic Model of the Chain-Branching Step in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis," J. Org. Chem. 1985, 50, 5428–5430.

34. Koreeda, M.; Hulin, B.; Yoshihara, M.; Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B. "Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of (+)-Averufin," J. Org. Chem. 1985, 50, 5426-5428.

33. Townsend, C. A.; Theis, A. B.; Neese, A. S.; Barrabee, E. B. "Stereochemical Fate of Chiral-Methyl Valine in the Ring Expansion of Penicillin N to Deacetoxycephalosporin C," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985, 107, 4760–4767.

32. Townsend, C. A.; Ho, M.-f. "Biosynthesis of Clavulanic Acid: Origin of the C3-Unit," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985, 107, 1066–1068.

31. Townsend, C. A.; Ho, M.-f. "Biosynthesis of Clavulanic Acid: Origin of the C5-Unit," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985, 107, 1065–1066.

30. Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B. "Concerning the Role of Nidurufin in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985, 107, 270–271.

29. Townsend, C. A.; Salituro, G. M. "Fate of 15N-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)glycine in Nocardicin A Biosynthesis," J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1984, 1631–1632.

28. Townsend, C. A.; Barrabee, E. B. "Stereochemical Investigation of the a-Ketoglutarate-Dependent 3'-Hydroxylation in Cephalosporin Biosynthesis," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1984, 1586–1588.

27. Schwab, J. M.; Li, W.-b.; Ho, C.-k.; Townsend, C. A.; Salituro, G. M. "Direct Observation by Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy of the Regioselectivity and Stoichiometry of 'Suicide' Enzyme Inactivation," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 7293–7294.

26. Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B.; Trautwein, K. "Hexanoate as a Starter Unit in Polyketide Biosynthesis," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 3868–3869.

25. Townsend, C. A.; Davis, S. G. "The Regiochemistry of A-Ring-labelled Averufin Incorporation into Aflatoxin B1," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1983, 1420–1422.

24. Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B. "Stable Isotope Studies of Anthraquinone Intermediates in the Aflatoxin Pathway," A Symposium-in-Print, Tetrahedron 1983, 39, 3575-3582.

23. Townsend, C. A.; Brown, A. M.; Nguyen, L. T. "Nocardicin A: Stereochemical and Biomimetic Studies of Monocyclic b-Lactam Biosynthesis," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983, 105, 919–927.

22. Townsend, C. A.; Brown, A. M. "Nocardicin A: Biosynthetic Experiments with Amino Acid Precursors," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983, 105, 913–918.

21. Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B.; Davis, S. G. "Bisfuran Formation in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis: The Role of Versiconal Acetate," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 6154–6155.

20. Townsend, C. A.; Christensen, S. B.; Davis, S. G. "Bisfuran Formation in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis: The Fate of the Averufin Side Chain," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 6152–6153.

19. Townsend, C. A.; Nguyen, L. T. "Improved Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-3-Aminonocardicinic Acid and Further Observations of the Mitsunobu Reaction for b-Lactam Formation in Seryl Peptides," Tetrahedron Lett. 1982, 23, 4859–4862.

18. Townsend, C. A.; Brown, A. M. "Nocardicin A Biosynthesis: Stereochemical Course of Monocyclic b-Lactam Formation," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 1748–1750.

17. Townsend, C. A.; Neese, A. S.; Theis, A. B. "Synthesis of (3R,4S)-and(3R,4R)-[4-2H,3H]Valine. Preparation of Compounds Containing Chiral-Methyl Groups with an Adjacent Asymmetric Centre," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1982, 116–118.

16. Townsend, C. A.; Davis, S. G.; Christensen, S. B.; Link, J. C.; Lewis, C. P. "Methoxymethyl-Directed Aryl Metalation. A Total Synthesis of (±)-Averufin," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1981, 103, 6885–6888.

15. Townsend, C. A.; Bloom. L. M. "Studies of Methoxymethyl-Directed Metalation," Tetrahedron Lett. 1981, 22, 3923–3924.

14. Townsend, C. A.; Nguyen, L. T. "Asymmetric, Biogenetically Modeled Synthesis of (-)-3-Aminonocardicinic Acid," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1981, 103, 4582–4583.

13. Townsend, C. A.; Brown, A. M. "Biosynthetic Studies of Nocardicin A," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1981, 103, 2873–2874.

12. Theis, A. B.; Townsend, C. A. "A Simple, Inexpensive Preparation of Highly Pure Copper (I) Bromide and its Dimethylsulfide Complex," Synth. Commun. 1981, 11, 157–166.

Pre-1981

11. Townsend, C. A.; Theis, A. B. "A Method for the Transfer of Labeled Methyl Groups," J. Org. Chem. 1980, 45, 1697–1699.

10. Imfeld, M.; Townsend, C. A.; Arigoni, D. "Intact Transfer of Methyl Groups in the Biosynthesis of Vitamin B12," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1976, 541–542.

9. Townsend, C. A.; Scholl, T.; Arigoni, D. "A New Synthesis of Chiral Acetic Acid," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1975, 921–922.

8. Scott, A. I.; Georgopapadakou, N.; Ho, K. S.; Klioze, S.; Lee, E.; Lee, S. L.; Temme, G. H. III; Townsend, C. A.; Armitage, I. M. "Concerning the Intermediacy of Uro'gen III and of a Heptacarboxylic Uro'gen in Corrinoid Biosynthesis," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1975, 97, 2548–4550.

7. Scott, A. I.; Townsend, C. A.; Okada, K.; Kajiwara, M.; Cushley, R. J.; Whitman, P. J. "Biosynthesis of Corrins II. Incorporation of 13C-Labeled Substrates into Vitamin B12," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1974, 96, 8069–8080.

6. Scott, A. I.; Townsend, C. A.; Okada, K.; Kajiwara, M. "Biosynthesis of Corrins I. Experiments with 14C-Porphobilinogen and 14C-Uroporphyrinogens," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1974, 96, 8054–8069.

5. Scott, A. I.; Lee, E.; Townsend, C. A. "On Corrin Biosynthesis," Bioorg. Chem. 1973, 3, 229–237.

4. Scott, A. I.; Townsend, C. A.; Cushley, R. J. "Stereochemistry of Methyl Group Insertion in Corrinoid Biosynthesis. Determination of Carbon Isotope Chirality by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 5759–5761.

3. Scott, A. I.; Townsend, C. A.; Okada, K.; Kajiwara, M. "Concerning the Biosynthesis of Vitamin B12," Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., Series II 1973, 35, 72–79.

2. Scott, A. I.; Townsend, C. A.; Okada, K.; Kajiwara, M.; Cushley, R. J. "Uroporphyrinogen III as a Precursor of Vitamin B12," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 8269–8271.

1. Scottt, A. I.; Townsend, C. A.; Okada, K.; Kajiwara, M.; Whitman, P. J.; Cushley, R. J. "Biosynthesis of Corrinoids. Concerning the Origin of the Methyl Groups in Vitamin B12," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 98, 8267–8269.

Maintained by: Douglas Cohen ~ Updated: 2014.09.05:16:03