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Headlines at Hopkins
Commencement 2001

Society of Scholars


Gordon Leslie Ada, visiting fellow, Division of Immunology and Cell Biology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University.
   At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, 1988-91. Nominated by Noel R. Rose, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
   One of the world's most distinguished virologists and immunologists, Gordon Ada did landmark research on the localization of antigen during the early stages of the immune response. Under his leadership, the Department of Microbiology at the John Curtin School in Canberra, Australia, became an international center for the study of the immune response to viral infections, work for which colleagues of his received a Nobel Prize. Ada also has been a leader in the development of vaccines worldwide. While at Johns Hopkins, he served as director of the Center for AIDS Research.

Theodore A. Bickart, retired president, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colo.
   At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Electrical Engineering (now Electrical and Computer Engineering), 1960-61. Nominated by C.R. Westgate, Whiting School of Engineering.
   Fourteenth president of the Colorado School of Mines and former dean of engineering at Syracuse and Michigan State universities, Theodore Bickart achieved national prominence as a leader in engineering education. He was the driving force behind a new accreditation process that has impacted engineering programs worldwide.

Ron F. Blackwelder, professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Southern California.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Mechanics (now the Department of Mechanical Engineering), May to September 1970. Nominated by Andrea Prosperetti, Whiting School of Engineering.
    Ron Blackwelder has made seminal contributions in the areas of turbulence, flow stability, drag reduction and instrumentation, and his contribution to particle image velocimetry was instrumental in placing this technique at the forefront of contemporary experimental fluid mechanics. In addition, Blackwelder has played an active role in practical aspects of aerodynamics, including the relationship between the flow ingested by aircraft engines and their performance.

Linda R. Gooding, professor of microbiology and immunology, Emory University School of Medicine.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology, 1972-74. Nominated by Michael Eddin, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.
    Linda Gooding has made important contributions in understanding the immune response to viruses and was the first to show how virus antigens are presented to immune effector cells. Her work has provided key insights into the cell biology of immune responses and assists with the treatment of virus infection and the use of small DNA viruses for gene therapy.

Robert J. Gould, vice president, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pa.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Neuroscience, 1981-84. Nominated by Solomon H. Snyder, School of Medicine.
    As vice president of pharmacology at the Merck Research Laboratories, Robert Gould has played an important role in developing a major new anti-clotting drug, Aggrastat, which has already decreased the incidence of heart attack and death in patients with coronary artery disease. He is regarded as one of the top cardiovascular research directors in the pharmaceutical industry.

Michael A. Hayes, professor of mathematical physics in the Department of Mathematical Physics, University College Dublin.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Mechanics Department (now the Department of Mechanical Engineering), 1961-62. Nominated by Marc Parlange, Whiting School of Engineering.
    A professor in the Department of Mathematical Physics at University College Dublin, Michael Hayes has done pioneering work in all areas of mechanics. In particular, his work on wave propagation in materials, deformation of materials and fluid mechanics has had implications for virtually all branches of engineering and applied mathematics.

Haig H. Kazazian Jr., Seymour Gray Professor of Molecular Medicine in Genetics and chairman, Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow, 1964-66; JHH house staff, 1968-69. Nominated by Barbara R. Migeon, School of Medicine.
    Chairman of the Department of Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania, Haig Kazazian is an outstanding medical geneticist, teacher and creative experimentalist who has contributed extensively to our knowledge of the molecular basis of human genetic disease.

Herbert Lepor, professor and Martin Spatz Chairman of Urology, New York University School of Medicine.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Urology, 1981-85. Nominated by Patrick C. Walsh, School of Medicine.
    Herbert Lepor is a pioneer in the development of medical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. His contributions include characterization of alpha receptors in the smooth muscle of the prostate and development of clinical trials that demonstrated the superiority of alpha-blockers over the other common form of medical management. At age 37, he was named chairman of Urology at New York University, where he has developed one of the finest academic urology programs in the nation.

David M. Ozonoff, professor and chair, Boston University School of Public Health.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of International Health, 1968. Nominated by John D. Groopman, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    David Ozonoff, chair of the Department of Environmental Health at the Boston University School of Public Health, has been internationally recognized for his pioneering work in studying health risks to communities from exposures to toxic chemicals. This work is a model for communities faced with the consequences of hazardous waste contamination.

Peter Safar, Distinguished Professor of Resuscitation Medicine, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Anesthesiology, 1954-61. Nominated by Roger A. Johns, School of Medicine.
    A native of Vienna, Austria, Peter Safar spent many years in Baltimore at Johns Hopkins and Baltimore City Hospitals. It was during those years that his work on cardiopulmonary resuscitation developed into the life-saving techniques commonly referred to as CPR. His long and illustrious career has seen him establish three academic anesthesiology departments and make countless contributions to emergency medicine and helping save people's lives following cardiac arrest.

Konrad Sandhoff, professor and director, Department of Biochemistry, Kekule-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bonn.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology, 1972-74. Nominated by Saul Roseman, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.
    In the field of lysosomal storage diseases, one of which bears his name, Konrad Sandhoff has clearly established himself as the preeminent leader in the field. His laboratory has played a principal role in elucidating the pathways of synthesis and degradation of these compounds, which permits identifying the genetic defect at the molecular level. His work has very important clinical implications.

George Scangos, president and chief executive officer, Exelixis Inc., South San Francisco.
    At Hopkins: Assistant professor, 1980-86, and associate professor, July to December 1986, in the Department of Biology. Nominated by Victor Corces, Eaton E. Lattman and E.N. Moudrianakis, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, and Thomas J. Kelly Jr., School of Medicine.
    George Scangos was one of a team of three scientists to generate the first transgenic mouse. This breakthrough and the applications of it, as pioneered by Scangos over several years, paved the way for the current developments in molecular diagnostics, gene therapy and the development of protein drugs and other pharmaceuticals. He has made major contributions in basic science as well as in applied biotechnology and is currently president and CEO of a groundbreaking biotech company, Exelixis.

Mark Schiffman, chief, Interdisciplinary Studies Section, Environmental Epidemiology Branch. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Epidemiology, 1983-84. Nominated by Keerti V. Shah and Kenrad E. Nelson, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    Mark Schiffman has made major contributions in the field of human papillomaviruses, or HPV, and cancer of the cervix. He played a key role in establishing the link between the HPV infection and cervical cancer and now heads an effort to evaluate a candidate vaccine for the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

Huntington Sheldon, retired Strathcona Professor of Pathology, McGill University.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Pathology, 1956-59. Nominated by Richard S. Ross, School of Medicine.
    As professor of pathology at McGill University for many years, Huntington Sheldon is known for his innovative research, which combined electron microscopy and histochemistry and that led to the discovery of extracellular localization of alkaline phosphatase. At McGill, he also was well known as a teacher, and his autopsy conference was very popular with medical students. Sheldon published widely, including a textbook of pathology for health professionals that is in its 12th edition.

Vernon T. Tolo, chairman, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles.
    At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 1971-75. Nominated by F.J. Frassica, School of Medicine.
    As chairman of the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at the Children's Hospital in Los Angeles, Vernon Tolo has made major contributions to pediatric orthopedic spine surgery, pediatric skeletal trauma and professional development. His work on spinal stenosis in achondroplasia, and other spinal problems, has made treatment safer and more effective. He has built an outstanding academic department whose work has advanced the fields of trauma treatment, cerebral palsy and children's bone tumors.

The following two scholars who were inducted in absentia in 2000 (see 2000 listing) also will participate in the ceremony.
Tom Ryan DeMeester, professor of general and cardiothoracic surgery and chairman of the Department of Surgery, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
Wolfgang Kollmann, professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Davis.


James G. Brasseur, professor of mechanical engineering and bioengineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University.
At Hopkins: postdoctoral fellow, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1983-85. Nominated by Daniel Q. Naiman.
   As a professor of engineering and bioengineering, James Brasseur has achieved an international reputation for excellence in two disparate areas of research: turbulence physics and the physiology and mechanics of the gastrointestinal tract. His work on turbulence has been recognized by many, including the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge University. He is an engineer whose research into the motility of the pharynx, upper sphincter, esophagus and stomach is well-known in the medical community.

Tom R. Ryan DeMeester, professor of general and cardiothoracic surgery and chairman of the Department of Surgery, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral research fellow in transplantation biology, 1967-68. Nominated by John L. Cameron.
   Tom DeMeester has made more contributions to the understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal disease and the diagnosis and treatment of both benign and malignant esophageal diseases than any other surgeon in the world. An expert on gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's adenocarcinoma, DeMeester has been in the forefront of a small group of individuals who have contributed both clinical and laboratory information concerning the evolution of Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

Malcolm Paul Weston Godfrey, retired chairman of the United Medical and Dental Schools Council, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals and Medical Schools (now Wing's College), London.
At Hopkins: Fellow in medicine, 1957-59. Nominated by Richard S. Ross.
   Malcolm Paul Weston Godfrey has had a distinguished career in the United Kingdom, serving in a number of high-level positions administering health care and research. He served as dean of the Royal Postgraduate Medical School at the University of London and also became chair of the Council of Governors of United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospitals. Throughout his career he has been interested in the development of the National Health Service and the partnership between service and medical and dental teaching and research, and he has contributed to the evolution of the Health Service and to the integration of academic medicine with that organization.

David Karzon, emeritus professor of pediatrics, microbiology and immunology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in virology, Department of Medicine, 1948-50. Nominated by Noel R. Rose.
   David Karzon achieved widespread fame for his seminal studies on the Newcastle disease virus in chickens and the canine distemper virus. He worked on safely introducing the polio vaccine and was one of the first to identify so-called orphan viruses known as the ECHO group. He remains a national authority on viral immunology and vaccinology and is often consulted on issues of vaccine safety.

David W. Kennedy, professor and chairman, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center.
At Hopkins: Assistant resident in surgery, assistant resident in otolaryngology and chief resident in otolaryngology, 1973-78. Nominated by Charles W. Cummings.
   David Kennedy is regarded as the premiere rhinologist in the United States today. His surgical talents are internationally recognized and, as head of the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania, he has led that department to the top echelon of academic medical centers.

Wolfgang Kollmann, professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Davis.
At Hopkins: Fellow in the Department of Mechanics and Materials Science, 1973-75. Nominated by Marc Parlange and Charles Meneveau.
   Recognized as a world leader in the study of turbulence, turbulent combustion and numerical simulation of turbulent flows, Wolfgang Kollmann has over the past 25 years advanced the state of the art in the solution of important engineering problems associated with complex flows. His work is used by leading government and private laboratories and is taught today in advanced graduate courses in universities worldwide.

Louis Lasagna, dean of the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences; dean for scientific affairs, School of Medicine; professor of psychiatry (clinical pharmacology); professor of pharmacology; chairman of the board and adjunct scholar, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development, Tufts University.
At Hopkins: Assistant and instructor in the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Medicine, 1950-52. Nominated by Reubin Andres.
   Louis Lasagna is generally acknowledged as the father of clinical pharmacology. His 1954 paper on the placebo response was selected by the editors of The Lancet as one of the landmark papers of the 20th-century in the canon of Western medicine. Another paper written early in his career, on the controlled clinical trial, also has become a classic. His remarkable career has delved deeply into areas of clinical trial methodology, analgesics and hypnotics as well as the placebo effect, and his work has made major contributions to medical education.

Bennie I. Osburn, dean of the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.
At Hopkins: Special research fellow in ophthalmology, 1968-70. Nominated by Arthur M. Silverstein.
   With the publication of more than 260 scientific publications since his time at Hopkins, Bennie Osburn has made many significant contributions to both veterinary and human pathology and medicine, especially in the pathogenesis of viral diseases, in the comparative pathology in infection and the immune response. His work on veterinary pathology and veterinary immunology has earned him an international reputation. He also has had a distinguished career in administration, serving as dean of the Davis School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California since 1996.

Hanna Reisler, professor of chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California.
At Hopkins: IAEA research fellow, Chemistry Department, 1972-74. Nominated by Paul J. Dagdigian.
   Hanna Reisler's seminal contributions are in the area of photo-initiated reaction dynamics of small molecules in the gas phase. Her approach of devising novel and incisive experiments to examine fundamental concepts that can be modeled by high-level theoretical treatments has had a major impact on the field of molecular photodissociation dynamics. Her work on quantum state resolved unimolecular decomposition dynamics has provided data for rigorous tests of statistical theories under conditions where the initial state and excess energy are well-defined. In influential work, she has tied together molecular quantum fluctuation phenomena and statistical theories by establishing the fundamental relationship between molecular interferences and the random fluctuations observed in nuclear reactions.

Harry Schachter, professor, Department of Biochemistry, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology, 1966-68. Nominated by Saul Roseman.
   Harry Schachter has made trail-blazing contributions in the field of glycobiology, one of the most difficult fields of modern biochemistry and cell biology. His work looks at the complex relationships of the carbohydrates and proteins that coat cell surfaces and allow living cells to recognize and communicate with one another.

Zohair Ahmed Sebai, chairman, Arab Development Institute, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
At Hopkins: Doctorate, School of Public Health, 1969. Nominated by Haroutune K. Armenian.
   Zohair Ahmed Sebai has made extraordinary contributions to the development of modern, effective public health programs in Saudi Arabia. His efforts were critical to the establishment of departments of community medicine and to adoption of nontraditional approaches to medical education. As a leading public health official, he effectively used the mass media to educate the public on public health issues, and he has helped shape public health policy at the highest levels of his government.

Craig Robert Smith, president and chief executive officer of Guilford Pharmaceuticals, Baltimore.
At Hopkins: Fellow in internal medicine, 1972-75. Nominated by Michael J. Klag.
   After completing his medical training at Hopkins, Craig Smith served as assistant chief of the Osler Medical Service and subsequently was chief of the Division of General Internal Medicine. As co-founder and director of Guilford Pharmaceuticals, Smith has helped guide the company in researching and developing a number of important new medical treatments for life-threatening diseases, advancing medical science and building Guilford Pharmaceuticals into a 200-employee business with $300 million in market capitalization.

Ronald E. Smith, Warren Professor and director of the Estelle Doheny Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California School of Medicine.
At Hopkins: Intern, School of Medicine; resident and chief resident, Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, 1967-73. Nominated by Morton F. Goldberg.
   Ronald Smith's numerous contributions to our understanding of ocular inflammation have made him a clinician and scientist of international repute in the field of ophthalmology. His expertise extends to the medical and surgical management of corneal and external diseases of the eyes. He has been an important educator and proven leader in American ophthalmology, having served as president of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and chairman of the American Board of Ophthalmology.

Hiroshi Tomoda, director of the Institute for Biological Function, the Kitasato Institute, Tokyo.
At Hopkins: Postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biology and the Kennedy Institute, 1987-89. Nominated by Yuan C. Lee.
   Hiroshi Tomoda's lifelong passion for isolating biomedically useful microbial products has led him to discover compounds that promise to open new horizons in solving problems of arteriosclerosis and even HIV infection, as well as compounds that are effective in lowering cholesterol levels. Holder of more than 20 patents on compounds, Tomoda not only has produced practical products but provided insights into understanding enzyme mechanisms.

Sharon Anne Whelan Weiss, professor and vice chair of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University Hospital.
At Hopkins: Intern, resident and chief resident, 1971-75. Nominated by Fred Sanfilippo.
   Sharon Anne Whelan Weiss is a leading authority in the field of surgical pathology. As an investigator and diagnostic pathologist, she has helped define the pathologic characteristics of numerous diseases, especially soft tissue tumors, and is widely sought for her diagnostic expertise. Weiss also is a noted educator and academic leader, having served on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Surgical Pathology and the Journal of Clinical Pathology and as president of the U.S.-Canadian Academy of Pathology.


Kenneth I. Berns, interim vice president for health affairs and dean of the College of Medicine, University of Florida; postdoctoral experience, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (formerly Department of Microbiology), School of Medicine, 1966-67; nominated by Thomas J. Kelly Jr.
   Kenneth Berns has devoted most of his scientific research career to the study of the molecular basis of replication of the human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus. He has been a major contributor to our knowledge concerning the ability of AAV to establish latent infections in human cells and to be reactivated by adenovirus infection. His work was instrumental in providing the basis for the current interest in the use of this virus as a vector for gene therapy. He has served as president of the American Society for Virology and the American Society of Microbiology and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

George A. Bray, executive director and professor, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, La.; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, 1957-58; nominated by Simeon Margolis.
   George Bray's interest in obesity began with a question about the biological basis for inherited obesity. Using as models genetically obese mice and rats available when he was a fellow and faculty member at Tufts, he began a series of animal studies that have continued for 35 years. He has examined the effects of food restriction, dietary composition, insulin resistance and the administration of thyroid hormone, cholecystokinin and various anorectic drugs in rats obese due to genetic factors or hypothalamic lesions. His laboratory studies have also shown that dietary fat intake can be selectively regulated either by a pancreatic peptide (enterostatin) or by serotonin release in the brain. The results of these studies have provided an understanding that one important cause of obesity is defects in the feedback system that regulates food intake. He then used the insights gained from these animal experiments to study patients with obesity in the clinic. Findings regarding the role of monoamines in controlling food intake have contributed to his studies on the role of drugs that modulate neurotransmitters as possible treatments for obesity. He is the lead author on the multicenter study of subutramine, a drug that has just been approved for the treatment of obesity in the United States.

Robert M. Chanock, chief of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health; postdoctoral experience, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 1956-57; nominated by Diane E. Griffin.
   Robert Chanock has had a career committed to the discovery of the etiology of many respiratory diseases and to developing vaccines for virus diseases of children and adults. He was responsible for the initial isolations of many respiratory viruses, e.g., respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, corona viruses and a number of strains of rhinovirus. He also was the first to isolate and characterize a new type of infectious agent, mycoplasma. He defined most of what we know about the virologic and epidemiologic characteristics and the clinical spectrum of these infections. As chief of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the NIAID, he currently leads the largest U.S. program for developing new vaccines for important virus diseases of humans. He has trained many of the leaders in human virology. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1973.

Michael J. Dunn, professor of medicine, dean and executive vice president, Medical College of Wisconsin; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, 1962-65; nominated by W. Gordon Walker.
   Michael Dunn's early classic description of experimental magnesium depletion in the human and subsequent studies of erythrocyte ion transport that clarified previously disparate views of sodium transport across the red blood cell membrane are recognized as outstanding research contributions. His most significant and sustained research on the role of prostaglandins in modulating renal function has provided new insights into the endocrine regulation of kidney function in health and disease. His studies of the renal toxicity of widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have provided both clinical guidance and new insights into the basic physiology of the renal circulation.

Gerald A.M. Finerman, chairman, Department of Orthopaedics, University of California-Los Angeles; postdoctoral experience, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, 1966-69; nominated by John P. Kostuik.
   Gerald Finerman received his medical degree at Johns Hopkins and following his residency here was appointed an assistant professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Johns Hopkins. With Lee Riley Jr., he initiated the total hip service at Johns Hopkins. At UCLA, which he joined in 1971, he specializes in sports medicine joint replacement. He has been in charge of the sports medicine program for the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics and was chief medical officer for the UCLA village in the 1984 Olympic games. He recently was awarded a large grant from NIH to evaluate kinematics of the cruciate ligaments of the knee.

Mark T. Keating, professor of medicine and of human genetics and HHMI investigator, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, 1980-83; nominated by Victor A. McKusick.
   Mark Keating, who did his residency training on the Osler Medical Service of The Johns Hopkins Hospital, is a pioneer in molecular cardiology. Starting in 1991 and using methods of map-based gene discovery, he and his colleagues at the University of Utah characterized the genes mutant in four forms of the long QT syndrome, a cause of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. In 1993, he and his students showed that the gene for elastin is mutated or deleted in cases of the aortic malformation called supravalvar aortic stenosis. They went on to show that the elastin gene and neighboring genes are deleted in about 90 percent of patients with Williams syndrome, a developmental abnormality that has supravalvar aortic stenosis as one feature. Thus, the studies of Keating demonstrated that elastin is essential to arterial morphogenesis. His studies of the several forms of long QT syndrome revealed new information about the function of potassium ion channels in the heart and provided DNA diagnosis in family members at risk for sudden death.

David T. Kelly, Scandrett Professor of Cardiology and director, Hallstrom Institute of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 1969-76; nominated by Richard S. Ross.
   David Kelly received medical and cardiology training in New Zealand and held junior faculty posts in London and Cape Town before coming in 1969 to Johns Hopkins, where he was served on the faculty until 1976. While at Hopkins, Kelly was involved in the development of radio nucleotide imaging of the heart. When he returned to Australia, he established the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the University of Sydney. He has been a pioneer in cardiovascular pharmacology and in the use of vasodilators in myocardial infarction. More recently, his interests have been directed toward the epidemiology of coronary disease, and he was invited to give the Paul Dudley White International Lecture at the 1996 Annual Scientific Session of the American Heart Association. Kelly has been president of the International Society and the Federation of Cardiology and will be president of the 14th World Congress of Cardiology, to be held in Sydney in the year 2002.

Jon C. Liebman, professor emeritus, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; postdoctoral experience, Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering (formerly Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences), School of Engineering, 1965-72; nominated by Charles ReVelle and M. Gordon Wolman.
   Jon Liebman began his academic career on the faculty at Hopkins, where he established one of the nation's first research programs in environmental systems engineering and provided the university's first course in scientific computing. At the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, he headed the Civil Engineering Department, one of the largest in the country. Liebman's pioneering research has been in the area of environmental systems analysis, a field that blends the tools of operations research with the practical problems of environmental management. In particular, he has done path-breaking research in applications of mathematical modeling and optimization to the regional management of water quality; his seminal dynamic programming work led to extensive follow-on research on this important problem. He established the nation's first research program that focused on optimal methods for solid waste management. With his students, he studies the complex mathematical problems associated with collection, routing, transfer station siting and landfill siting in order to determine cost-efficient regional solid waste-disposal systems. He has also published extensively on optimal sewer system design and on the design of water distribution systems.

Paul Meier, Howard Levene Professor, Department of Statistics, Columbia University; postdoctoral experience, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 1952-57; nominated by Scott Zeger.
   In 1958, Paul Meier published with E.L. Kaplan a paper in the Journal of the American Statistical Association titled "Nonparametric Estimation from Incomplete Observations" that introduced the now famous Kaplan-Meier estimate of the survival function, which populates every major medical and public health journal throughout the world. With the Cox proportional hazards model, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of a survival function is perhaps the most commonly used statistical method in clinical research. Meier had started this seminal work as a graduate student at Princeton and completed it as a faculty member in the Hopkins Department of Biostatistics. With this single paper, Meier established himself as the leading biostatistician of his day. He went on to a distinguished career, serving for more than 30 years as professor of statistics at the University of Chicago, during which time he became the leading American expert in the design, conduct and analysis of data from clinical trials.

Nicholas Muzyczka, professor, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida Health Science Center; postdoctoral experience, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (formerly Department of Microbiology), School of Medicine, 1974-77; nominated by Maurice J. Bessman.
   Nicholas Muzyczka's doctoral thesis from the Hopkins Department of Biology on bacterial viruses was seminal to our understanding of the biochemical basis of spontaneous mutations. Later, as a postdoctoral fellow in Daniel Nathan's laboratory, Muzyczka began his work with animal viruses that has made him a leader in the area of gene therapy, using adeno-associated virus as the vector for replacing defective genes. His fundamental studies on viral replication have been instrumental in advancing the technology of gene replacement in the treatment of human disease.

Carol Wolf Runyan, professor, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, and director, University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; postdoctoral experience, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 1985-86; nominated by Susan P. Baker.
   Carol Runyan's achievements and leadership in injury control have placed her at the forefront of this critical field. Shortly after completing her postdoctoral fellowship in epidemiology at the School of Public Health, she was appointed associate director and then director of the Injury Prevention Research Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Runyan's seminal research on adolescent and occupational injuries was accomplished during a period when both areas lacked good epidemiological work. Her papers on injuries to women have called attention to the underrecognized fact that injuries are the major cause of death among women for the first several decades of life. Her research is now making important contributions to the problem of violence against women.

Olive Shisana, executive director, Family and Health Services, World Health Organization; postdoctoral experience, Department of Health Policy and Management (formerly Department of Behavior Sciences), School of Public Health, 1981-84; nominated by David D. Celentano and Richard Morrow Jr.
   Olive Shisana, who in the mid-1970s fled South Africa because of anticipated arrest for her active anti-apartheid activities, has led the extraordinary transformation of that country's apartheid separate and unequal hospital-based health systems through to an integrated, equitable district-based primary health care-oriented system. After obtaining a master's degree from Loyola College in Baltimore and a ScD from the Department of Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins, she joined the Department of Human Services, District of Columbia, where, from 1986 to 1991, she served as chief statistical adviser and then chief of research and statistics.
   With the revolutionary political shifts in South Africa that would allow her expertise to be put to good use in rebuilding her homeland, she returned in 1991 to join the South African Medical Research Council.
   While with the MRC she was seconded to the University of the Western Cape to develop in parallel with the University of the Transvaal the first school of public health in South Africa. She became technical adviser to the African National Congress on Provincial Restructuring of the Administrations, Civil Service Restructuring and Affirmative Action and was instrumental in radically redrawing boundaries for the provinces and districts, which was fundamental to the drive for equitable social services. When the new Government of National Unity took over, she was appointed director general of the South African Department of Health in 1995, carrying through the full transformation of the previously inequitable, highly fractionated, racially structured health system in the face of unrelenting opposition by the incumbent members of the previous health establishment. Largely because of her courageous and compelling management of the health system of South Africa, she was one of the first people selected by Gro Brundtland, the new director-general of the World Health Organization, to join her inner cabinet, as executive director of Family and Health Services.

David B. Skinner, president and CEO, the New York Presbyterian Hospital and New York Presbyterian Healthcare System; postdoctoral experience, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, 1968-72; nominated by John L. Cameron.
   David Skinner is a general thoracic surgeon whose first faculty appointment was in 1968 as an assistant professor in the Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, where he later was promoted to professor. His major interests were esophageal surgery, pulmonary surgery and support of the failing heart. He left Hopkins after five years to become the Dallas B. Phemister Professor of Surgery and chairman of the department at the University of Chicago. When he became president of New York Hospital in 1987, he was recognized as one of the outstanding esophageal surgeons in the world. Under his leadership, New York Hospital has gone from losing a million dollars a week to being a very successful institution, which recently combined with Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, with Skinner as the CEO of the combined New York Presbyterian Hospital and New York Presbyterian Healthcare System.

Eric Jeffrey Topol, chairman, Department of Cardiology, and director, Joseph J. Jacob Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation; postdoctoral experience, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 1982-85; nominated by Kenneth L. Baughman.
   While a fellow at Hopkins, Eric Topol made original observations on the influence of bypass graft surgery on stunned myocardium and the early use of thrombolytic agents. Following his fellowship, Topol was recruited by the University of Michigan School of Medicine, where he rose to the rank of professor in 1991 and was the director of the cardiac catheterization laboratory. He was subsequently appointed chairman of the Department of Cardiology at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, where he also directs the Joseph J. Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. He has organized a worldwide network of cardiovascular investigators who have completed a multitude of randomized, prospective placebo-controlled trials, which have dramatically forwarded our knowledge of evidence-based cardiology. In the area of cardiovascular diseases, Topol has authored or co-authored 528 original manuscripts, 15 books, 99 book chapters, 40 letters to the editor, 406 abstracts and 54 non-peer review articles.

Gayle Woodson, professor, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Tennessee; postdoctoral experience, Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, 1976-78; nominated by Charles W. Cummings.
   Gayle Woodson attended medical school at Baylor and did her surgical internship and first year of resident surgical training at Hopkins, prior to returning to Baylor in the otolaryngological head and neck surgical training program. She completed a fellowship in laryngeal physiology at the Institute of Laryngology and Otology in London and became certified by both the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada and the American Board of Otolaryngology. She served on the medical faculties of Baylor College and the University of California at San Diego before moving to the University of Tennessee. Woodson serves as a director of the American Board of Otolaryngology and is on the residency review committee for otolaryngology. She is currently president of the Society of University Otolaryngologists and the Advisory Council for Otolaryngology for the American College of Surgeons. Woodson serves on four editorial boards of peer-reviewed journals and has authored 85 publications and book chapters.


J. Carl Barrett
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

Dr. Barrett's research is centered on the relationship between aging and cancer, the genes involved in cellular senescence and apoptosis, the role of BRCA-1 as a tumor suppressor gene, and the function of KAI-1, a newly cloned prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene. A chairperson, organizer, or keynote speaker at numerous professional conferences and symposia, he is the scientific director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, associate editor of Cancer Research, and editor-in-chief of Molecular Carcinogenesis.

Harvey W. Bender Jr.
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Bender's skills as an outstanding pediatric cardiac surgeon earned him wide recognition during his 11 years at Hopkins and his present tenure at Vanderbilt University, where he is professor of surgery and chairman of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery. He is a noted expert on all pediatric cardiac anomalies, and he is particularly well-known for his surgical skills in managing complete transposition of the great vessels.

Tibor Borsos
Chevy Chase, Maryland

Dr. Borsos' career can be divided into three major areas: research related to the role of Rous sarcoma virus in the pathogenesis of cancer; a lifelong interest in complement and complement-mediated lysis; and pioneering investigations on the immunology of tumors, studies that led to the first clinical trial of BCG in the treatment of bladder cancer. He spent most of his career at the National Cancer Institute. At the time of his retirement in 1988, he was chief of the Laboratory of Immuno-biology. Until 1994, he served as research professor of pathology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Lonnie S. Burnett
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Burnett is well-recognized for his contributions in gynecological oncology. He is beloved at Johns Hopkins as a major force in the School of Medicine's alumni organization and especially in launching the Howard Kelly Society for the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. As a gynecologic oncologist, he has published extensively on the use of chemotherapeutic agents for ovarian cancer and is the co-author of the 11th edition of the textbook Novak's Gynecology, which originated at Johns Hopkins. Dr. Burnett has received numerous awards, including the H. Graham Wait Jr. Memorial President's Award in recognition of outstanding research and education contributions in the field of gynecology/ obstetrics.

Lanny Garth Close
New York, New York

Dr. Close is a leader in academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. After serving on the faculty of the University of Texas Medical School, in Houston, and the Southwestern Medical School, in Dallas, he joined the faculty at Columbia University, where he is the Howard Smith Professor and chairman of the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. He serves on the editorial review boards of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Laryngoscope, and Cancer.

Claes H. Dohlman
Boston, Massachusetts Dr. Dohlman's major contributions to medicine have been in the field of diseases, physiology, and biochemistry of the cornea and in experimental pathology of the cornea. He developed and was the director of the corneal service of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, at which many of the current experts in the field received their training. The recipient of numerous awards, including the Friedenwald, Bjerrum, and Proctor lectureships, he is currently adjunct senior scientist at the Eye Research Institute, in Weston, Massachusetts.

Ari Gafni
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Gafni has made major contributions to the understanding of aging. He not only has studied protein changes in the elderly and the comparison of proteins in old and young cells, but also he and his colleagues developed many of the specialized spectroscopic techniques used in these studies. Currently a professor in the Department of Biological Chemistry at the University of Michigan, he has held a U.S. State Department training fellowship and the Glasberg Career Development Chair in Physical Biochemistry. Recipient of the Kellogg Presidential Initiative Award, he also is a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America.

Andre Goffeau
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

Dr. Goffeau has had a very productive career, highlighted by a number of important discoveries and accomplishments in the field of genetics. Among his often pioneering work, he led the worldwide team that recently completed the entire sequence of the yeast genome. A major contributor to biotechnology programs in Europe and an organizer of several scientific conferences, he is a Professor Extraordinaire at the Universit E9 Catholique de Louvain in Belgium.

Jack B.L. Howell
Southampton, United Kingdom

Dr. Howell has made outstanding contributions leading to a greater understanding of the control of breathing in health and disease and the mechanism of breathlessness. His clinical work was dominated by the management of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Currently, he is a professor emeritus of medicine at the University of Southampton, chairman of the Southampton and Southwest Hampshire Health Authority, and chairman of the Board of Science and Education of the British Medical Association.

Trevor Martin Penning
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Penning's research on the enzymology of steroid hormones has made him one of the premier investigators in the world in understanding the mechanism, structure, and specificity of the family of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. He has not only achieved scientific distinction as a world leader in the field of steroid biochemistry but also commands the respect of his colleagues as an excellent teacher and administrator. A professor of pharmacology, obstetrics and gynecology, and biochemistry and biophysics, he is the associate dean for postdoctoral research training at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

Bertram Pitt
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Pitt has spent his career investigating coronary circulation. With colleagues, he developed many methods that utilized radioactive substances for such studies, pioneering the application of the thallium scan for identification of ischemic areas in the myocardium. As professor of medicine and director of cardiology at the University of Michigan, he developed a strong research and training program. His accomplishments have been honored by membership in the American Physiological Society, the American Society of Clinical Investigation, and the Association of American Physicians.

Christine E. Seidman
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Seidman has made major contributions to the molecular approaches to understanding cardiac pathophysiology and the genetic approaches to understanding inherited human disorders. Work in her lab established the first genetic abnormality to explain hereditary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School, she was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha and received the American Heart Association Clinician Scientist and Established Investigatorship awards.

Klaus V. Toyka
Wurzburg, Germany

The seminal research that Dr. Toyka carried out while a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins, has shaped his career investigating the immunological basis of neurological disorders, including peripheral neuropathies, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory myopathies. Recently involved in studies of genetically determined disorders, he brought the "Hopkins model" of research and clinical care to Germany when he assumed the chair of the Department of Neurology at the University of Wurzburg in Germany.

David C. U'Prichard
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

Dr. U'Prichard's career has focused on pharmacology. He served as the senior vice president and scientific director for Nova Pharmaceuticals Corporation before being recruited by British Zeneca Group PLC, where he became the international research director in 1994. In 1997, he became president of research and development at SmithKline Beecham. In this position, he is responsible for the daily operations of the company's laboratories and nearly 5,000 preclinical development activities worldwide. He serves as an honorary professor at Glasgow University Institute of Biomedical & Life Sciences and holds adjunct teaching posts at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Northwestern University School of Medicine.


Po-Ya Chang
Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

Dr. Chang was among the first to recognize the public health problems emerging in Taiwan due to rapid socioeconomic and demographic change. She initiated research in occupational health, focusing on workers' exposure to lead and has been a pioneer advocate for women's health. She has served as mayor of Chiayi City, population 300,000, and in 1990 was appointed to her present position as director-general of the newly created National Department of Health for Taiwan.

Mahlon R. DeLong
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. DeLong's research in neurology has changed the way we think about and treat two major illnesses: Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's. He was among the team that recognized the depletion of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis in Alzheimer's patients and has led the profession to reconsider how the basal ganglia function in relation to the brain stem. A clinician-investigator par excellence, he is currently professor and chairman of Neurology at Emory University School of Medicine.

James K. Edzwald
Amherst, Massachusetts

Dr. Edzwald's research and teaching in environmental engineering, particularly in the area of water supply and water quality, have earned him wide recognition. Currently professor and head of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Massachusetts, he has held positions at several universities, including Johns Hopkins, during his distinguished career. His work has garnered him professional prizes, as well as many consulting assignments; he recently served on an EPA panel concerning the New York City water supply.

Timothy S. Harrison
Hershey, Pennsylvania

A skilled surgeon and researcher, Dr. Harrison has made internationally recognized contributions in the field of endocrine surgery and has expanded our understanding of endocrine function, dysfunction, and neoplasms. He completed his residency in the Department of Surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1956; after a distinguished career as both physician and mentor, he is now professor emeritus of surgery and physiology at the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center of the Pennsylvania State University.

David McKinnon Lawrence
Oakland, California

A graduate of the General Preventive Medicine Residency Program at the School of Hygiene and Public Health, Dr. Lawrence has developed innovative health-care delivery systems to meet the challenges of large populations. He was one of the first to advocate the use of physicians' assistants and is committed to preventive care. As chairman and chief executive officer, he has led the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan to consistently high- quality assurance evaluations.

Allen Sollie Lichter
Ann Arbor, Michigan

During his tenure as chairman, Dr. Lichter has led the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Michigan Medical School to become one of the premier departments in the country. He developed clinical trials to improve breast cancer treatment and has pioneered the use of three-dimensional methods for tumor diagnosis and treatment. Last year the New England Journal of Medicine honored his achievements by inviting him to author the journal's "Medical Progress" monograph on "Recent Advances in Radiation Oncology."

Gianni Marone
Naples, Italy

Dr. Marone is an internationally renowned figure in the world of clinical immunology and allergy and the recognized leader of the discipline in Italy. As a professor of medicine and the director of the Section of Clinical Immunology and Allergy at the University of Naples Federico II, he has trained a generation of young investigators in the field. Worldwide understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic disease has been enriched by his outstanding research and publications. Currently president of the Italian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, he has served as consultant to the Ministry of Health in Rome and to the World Health Organization. He also has received numerous awards from the Italian government and European medical societies.

Lechaim Naggan
Beer Sheva, Israel

Dr. Naggan combines the talents of researcher and administrator. A physician epidemiologist, he has investigated clinical problems such as congenital malformation and viral hepatitis, but he has also studied health services, successfully evaluating, for example, the health needs of Bedouins, a group unaccustomed to Western models of health care. He has served as Israeli deputy surgeon general, and is currently vice president and dean for research and development at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Jennifer R. Niebyl
Iowa City, Iowa

Dr. Niebyl's commitment to research, education, and clinical practice in obstetrics and gynecology is reflected in the variety of her accomplishments. Currently professor and head of medicine in that department at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, she also co-edits two professional journals. In the classroom she appears not only as a fine teacher, but also as co-editor of a widely used obstetrics textbook. Her research continues to generate new articles and book chapters. She is a respected leader in obstetrics and gynecology today. Shin-Ichiro Nishimura Sapporo, Japan Dr. Nishimura's work in polymer chemistry and glyco- biology holds promise for new treatments of diseases such as influenza and AIDS; the work has produced a flurry of publications-more than 100 in nine years-and remarkable professional recognition. Since taking his Ph.D. in 1987, he has risen to become professor and director of the Division of Biological Science in the graduate school at Hokkaido University, as well as an editor of scientific journals and a member of the advisory boards of several scientific associations.

Robert G. Robinson
Iowa City, Iowa

By identifying the depressive disorder associated with stroke, Dr. Robinson has made a crucial contribution not only to neurology and psychiatry, but also to the treatment and rehabilitation of patients who suffer from stroke. His work has also helped us understand the cerebral mechanism behind affective disorder and its role in the depression and mania symptomatic of that disorder. These contributions have made Dr. Robinson a leader in American psychiatry.

Kenji Sunagawa
Osaka, Japan

From the time Dr. Sunagawa began his postdoctoral work at the School of Medicine in 1978, he has been breaking new ground in cardiovascular research. Beginning with work he did here, which helped define the dynamic relationship between the left ventricle and its artery, he and his research team have recently developed crucial insights into cardiovascular control systems. A book he co-authored has become the standard reference for understanding the pressure-volume approach to ventricular function.

Noriko Takahashi
Handa-City, Japan

Dr. Takahashi has made two important contributions in the field of glycobiology, both of which help scientists analyze the structure of carbohydrates in glycoconjugates. She discovered glycoamidase, an enzyme which has become an indispensable tool for studying glycoproteins, and she developed new chromatic methods for carbohydrate analysis. Dr. Takahashi is also distinguished in the history of Japan: she was the first woman graduate of Nagoya University (1951) and the first woman in Japan to obtain an engineering degree.

John E. Wennberg
Hanover, New Hampshire

In studying the way physicians work, Dr. Wennberg invented the concept of "small area variation," which demonstrated for the first time, and in a scientifically rigorous way, that equally capable physicians in adjacent geographic areas practice medicine very differently. He developed the analytical methods needed to form the core of a new field: practice variation. Studies in this field point the way toward better clinical guidance for physicians and more consistent communication with patients about treatment options.

Anne B. Young
Boston, Massachusetts

From the molecule to the clinic, Dr. Young has taken up major questions in the field of neurology. She produced a body of research which elucidates the role of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in brain function, and has been a key clinical investigator of Huntington's disease, helping identify the genetic abnormality that appears to cause it. At Harvard, Dr. Young is considered an extraordinary chair of neurology, having guided both research and clinical activities to new levels of achievement.


Dr. Hugh F. Biller
New York, New York

Dr. Biller is internationally known as a leader in head and neck surgery. He pioneered and developed surgical procedures focused on the preservation of vocal function while successfully treating malignant disease involving the larynx. He served as chairman of the Department of Otolaryn- gology at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City until 1995. He is past president of the American Society for Head and Neck Surgery.

Dr. Peter G.J. Burney
London, England

Dr. Burney's position as chairman of the Respiratory Disease Committee of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease places him in the front ranks of epidemiologists worldwide. He has played a major role in the education of public health physicians and is a widely acknowledged expert and leader in the fight against chronic respiratory diseases. Dr. Burney has served on many national and international working groups, committees, and councils dealing with asthma and related diseases. He is also chair of the Department of Public Health Medicine at United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas Hospitals in London.

Dr. Roberto Casalbuoni
Fllorence, Italy

Dr. Casalbuoni is a leading researcher in the study of subatomic particles. He is chair of the Department of Physics at the University of Florence in Italy and has been published on a wide variety of topics related to the physics of elementary particles. Under his leadership, he and other theoretical physicists in Florence have developed a method of searching for new physical phenomena by analyzing data obtained when electrons and positrons collide at high energy levels.

Dr. C. Richard Conti
Gainesville, Florida

A leader in academic cardiology, Dr. Conti is a graduate of Johns Hopkins Medical School, the Osler Residency Program, and a Division of Cardiology fellow. He has had a distinguished career in research and training as director of cardiology at the University of Florida School of Medicine. His national status as a trailblazer in cardiology was recognized by his election to president of the American College of Cardiology in 1988.

Harold Gerard Donnelly
West Lafayette, Indiana

Dr. Donnelly is one of the world's pioneers in the basic linear equations associated with a Riemannian manifold, the heat equation and the wave equation. These equations have been studied for well over a century by physicists, engineers, and mathematicians looking for answers in acoustics, diffusion of heat, and the spectral analysis of light from a star. Dr. Donnelly has made breakthroughs in the analysis of the eigen- functions, introducing entirely new thoughts in the subject.

Dr. Thomas P. Duffy
New Haven, Connecticut

Dr. Duffy is one of the nation's leading academic hematologists and a renowned practitioner of the Oslerian school of patient-centered clinical care, teaching, and scholarship. His teaching and written scholarship have focused on the ways that doctors can learn directly from the patient to gain the insight needed both to understand the patient's problems and to offer the most appropriate intervention. This patient- centered approach has also led Dr. Duffy to write works that have enlightened the medical community's thinking about the many ethical issues that arise in the care of patients. Dr. Duffy has inspired a generation of students, house officers, and fellows to aspire to the highest ideals of the medical profession.

Dr. Linda S. Gottfredson
Newark, Delaware

Dr. Gottfredson, a professor of the Department of Educational Studies at the University of Delaware, is nationally known for her penetrating researches on vocational choice, the measurement of individual differences, and the bases of occupational stratification. Her 1981 treatise, "Circumscription and Compromise: A Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations," became an instant classic and stimulus for new research for the light it shed on how and why individuals enter the careers they do.

Dr. Lazar J. Greenfield
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Greenfield, chair of the Department of Surgery at University of Michigan, is clearly one of the leaders in American surgery. He was one of the last young cardiovascular surgeons trained at Hopkins by the famous Dr. Alfred Blalock. He has made many significant contributions in the field of cardiovascular surgery, perhaps most notably the development of the Greenfield vena caval filter. Prior to his position at Michigan, he was chairman of the Department of Surgery at the Medical College of Virginia for 13 years.

Dr. William H. Hartmann
Tampa, Florida

Dr. Hartmann is internationally recognized for his academic contributions in research, education, and service in pathology. As editor-in-chief of the Atlas of Tumor Pathology from 1975 to 1987, he established this series of volumes as the primary reference source throughout the world for the classification of tumors. Moreover, his own research, especially in thyroid and breast cancer, has had significant impact in the characterization of these tumors. As chair of pathology at Vander-bilt University from 1973 to 1987, he established his department as one of the leaders in the United States. He has served as executive vice president of the American Board of Pathology.

Dr. Fazle Hussain
Houston, Texas

Dr. Hussain is one of the world's leading experts in experimental fluid mechanics. He is particularly known for his extensive research and contributions in turbulent shear flows, jets, vortex dynamics, and related experimental methods. He has served as editor of several prominent journals and is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering and the American Physical Society.

Dr. Kim Mo-Im
Seoul, Korea

Dr. Kim is the recipient of numerous national and international awards for her contributions to the field of nursing. She was elected to the Korean National Assembly from 1981 to 1985 and was instrumental in formulating legislation that enhanced the education and participation of nurses in health care in Korea. Internationally, Dr. Kim has served with the World Health Organization as a member of expert panels and advisory groups on nursing. Since 1994, she has been secretary-general of the Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centers for International Nursing and Midwifery Development.

Dr. Alexander H. Leighton
Halifax, Nova Scotia

Dr. Leighton is a pre-eminent American psychiatric epidemiologist and is internationally known for documenting community aspects of psychiatry. He initiated pioneering community studies in North America aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of mental illness in a normal population. His work led to numerous outstanding publications, including 15 books.

Dr. George L. Nemhauser
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Nemhauser is world-renowned in the field of mathematical operations research, particularly in the theory, advanced computational development, and applications of optimization. He served as president of the Mathematical Programming Society and the Operations Research Society of America. He has published widely in such diverse areas as antenna design, line balancing, capital budgeting, train scheduling, political dis-tricting, plant location and production planning.

Dr. David B. Thomas
Seattle, Washington

Dr. Thomas is a distinguished cancer epidemiologist and head of one of the leading programs in cancer epidemiology in the world. His research has focused on the risks of hormones and breast cancer, an issue of international importance because of the widespread use of hormones in oral contraceptives and for post-menopausal replacement therapy. Dr. Thomas has made broad contributions to our understanding of the causes of cancer in his role as director of the Cancer Surveillance System of western Washington, an innovative cancer registry that has been used for research and public health monitoring.

Dr. Lawrence L. Weed
Underhill, Vermont

Dr. Weed is known throughout the world as the originator of the problem-oriented medical record. His system has revolutionized the way medical information is recorded, stored, and transmitted, and has provided the foundation for the computerized medical record. His experience has spanned the spectrum from basic biomedical science at Yale to medical education in a community hospital in Bangor, Maine. He is currently professor emeritus at the University of Vermont, where he has been since 1964.


Dr. Gabriel Alvarez
Madrid, Spain

Dr. Alvarez, professor in the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Universidad Complutense, is one of the brightest young scientists in Spain. In addition to contributions in quantum chemistry, mathematical physics and electron paramagnetic resonance, he has established a reputation in computer programming with his work on optical character recognition and the Spanish implementation of the NeXT operating system.

Dr. Frank C. Arnett, Jr.
Houston, Texas

Dr. Arnett is internationally recognized as a leader in the field of immunogenetics. His research of autoantibody responses in various rheumatic diseases has played a significant role in identifying immune response alleles in human chromosomes. Dr. Arnett is director of the Division of Rheumatology and a professor of internal medicine at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

Dr. Subhash Chandra Basu
Notre Dame, Indiana

Dr. Basu has pioneered study of the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates called gangliosides. These compounds accumulate in large quantity in certain diseases, such as Tay-Sachs', and are also involved in intercellular communication. The pathway of synthesis of the gangliosides, developed largely by Dr. Basu, is of major interest to researchers. He is chairman of the Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology Program and a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Notre Dame.

Dr. Nicolaie D. Cristescu
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Cristescu is a leading researcher in the fields of dynamic plasticity, rock mechanics, and metal forming. His 1967 book, Dynamic Plasticity, based on extensive theoretical analyses, helped established his international reputation. Dr. Cristescu served as president of the University of Bucharest from 1990 to 1992, and is a graduate research professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics, and Engineering Science at the University of Florida.

Dr. Robert H. Fletcher
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Fletcher, professor of ambulatory care and prevention at the Harvard Medical School and Harvard Community Health Plan, is internationally recognized for his contributions to primary care. From 1990 to 1993, he served as editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine, shaping the editorial policy during a time of rapid changes in medicine and primary care. Dr. Fletcher is the former president of the Society of General Internal Medicine.

Dr. Ruth Gallily
Jerusalem, Israel

Dr. Gallily, professor of immunology at The Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School Jerusalem and The Lauten-berg Center of General and Tumor Immunology, has extensively studied the role of macrophages, cells that help protect against infection. She developed an antimacrophage serum, which showed the critical role of macrophages in inflammation, transplantation immunity, and autoimmunity. Dr. Gallily documented the interaction of antibody and macrophage in promoting the toxicity and destructive nature of cells.

Dr. Mark Granovetter
Evanston, Illinois

Dr. Granovetter, an esteemed sociologist, has inspired fellow researchers with his scholarly work and compelling reasoning. His book, Getting a Job, is a classic in the field of social stratification, and his 1985 article, "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem on Embeddedness," reinvigorated economic sociology. Dr. Granovetter is director of the Program in Business Institutions within the Department of Sociology at Northwestern University.

Dr. Bevra H. Hahn
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Hahn-an outstanding researcher, clinician, and teacher-has made contributions to understanding the origins and development of a form of the skin disease lupus and to improving the treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases. She is chief of the Division of Rheumatology and a professor of medicine in the Department of Medicine at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine.

Dr. Peter S. Harper
Cardiff, Wales

Dr. Harper is a renowned researcher of myotonic dystrophy, Huntington's chorea, and other hereditary neuromuscular diseases. He has applied the science of genetics to the delivery of effective and compassionate health care for birth defects and hereditary disorders. Dr. Harper is professor of medical genetics at the University of Wales College of Medicine, and consultant physician and medical geneticist at the University Hospital of Wales.

Dr. Charles R. Hatcher, Jr.
Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Hatcher has had a distinguished career at Emory University. He established and developed the nationally renowned open heart surgery program at the Emory University School of Medicine, serving as professor of surgery and chief of cardiothoracic surgery. In 1976, he became the director of the Emory Clinic, and since 1984 has been the vice president for health affairs and the director of the Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center.

Dr. Harrison Latta
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Latta is internationally recognized as a pathologist and academician. He is an authority on the kidney and a pioneer investigator of the structure of a small, intertwined mass of capillaries called glomerulus. His interest in electron microscopy led to the discovery of the glass knife technique for cutting ultrathin sections, a major contribution in the field. Dr. Latta is professor emeritus of pathology at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine.

Dr. Marie Clare McCormick
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. McCormick is an acclaimed researcher and policy analyst in maternal and child health services. Her interests are epidemiology of infant mortality and low birth weight, measurement of and factors associated with child health status, and evaluation of maternal and child health services. Dr. McCormick is professor and chair of the Department of Maternal and Child Health at the Harvard School of Public Health and professor of pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School.

Dr. Abraham M.Y. Nomura
Honolulu, Hawaii

Dr. Nomura, a researcher in cancer epidemiology, has focused on the relationship of diet and cancer, and on related methodological issues. He has studied the interaction of genetic factors and behavioral lifestyle patterns that Hawaii represents in its admixture of races and people. Dr. Nomura, director of the Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study at Kuakini Medical Center, is associate editor of the American Journal of Epidemiology and Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Dr. Stephen J. Peroutka
Menlo Park, California

Dr. Peroutka, a molecular neuroscientist and neurologist, has made significant contributions with direct clinical impact. He was the first researcher to clarify the subtypes of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin, explaining the actions of anti-migraine and anti-nausea drugs. He is president and founder of Spectra Biomedical Inc., where genomic techniques are used to identify the causes and treatment of headache and psychiatric diseases.

Dr. Eijiro Satoyoshi
Tokyo, Japan

Dr. Satoyoshi is a distinguished clinician and investigator in the field of neurology. He conceived, developed and directed the Japanese National Institute of Neurosciences, which has been consolidated as the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. As president emeritus of this government institute, he continues to be involved in world-class research in a variety of areas of neuroscience.


Dr. Hideyasu Aoyama
Okayama City, Japan

Dr. Aoyama is a pioneer in the field of occupational health and safety in Japan. He is chairman of the Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine at the Okayama University Medical School, the largest department of hygiene in Japan. Dr. Aoyama set up a fellowship training program for foreign physicians to train in Japan, and has been instrumental in developing the foundation for the first schools of public health in Japan.

Dr. William J. Catalona
St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Catalona is a surgeon and one of the most respected urologic oncologists in the nation. He revolutionized the management of prostate cancer, making major contributions on the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for diagnosis. Before his findings were published, it was widely believed that PSA lacked sufficient specificity for this purpose.

Dr. Joseph T. Coyle
Belmont, Massachusetts

Dr. Coyle became a world leader in psychopharmacology while on the faculty of Hopkins, where he was chief of Child Psychiatry. He left Hopkins to become the first head of the Consolidated Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. He eventually made many contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease.

Dr. Ugo Fisch
Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Fisch is a world-renowned neuro-otologist and skull base surgeon who has made numerous contributions to the basic science and clinical practice of otology. His refinements of certain surgical approaches became universally used.

Dr. Juan Martin Flavier
Manila, Philippines

Dr. Flavier, secretary of health for the Philippines, has worked to improve the health and welfare of millions of Filipinos living in rural areas. Through his immunization program, more than 1.5 million children have been immunized, and 85 percent of Filipino children younger than 5 have been immunized against polio, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus.

Dr. Suzanne Wright Fletcher
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Fletcher, a professor of ambulatory care and prevention at Harvard Medical School, is a leading scholar in preventive medicine. She is former editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine, the premier journal in its field, and the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Dr. Fletcher was elected to the National Academy of Science's Institute of Medicine in 1987.

Dr. Judith G. Hall
Vancouver, British Columbia

Dr. Hall is chairwoman of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. She is a leader in the area of genetic syndromes and birth defects. Dr. Hall defined and named the disorder known as thrombocytopenia with absent radius, or TAR, in which children are born without the radius bone in the forearm. She has classified many forms of arthrogryposis, a type of birth defect resulting in stiff, unbendable joints in the arms and legs. Her work also has been instrumental in describing uniparental disomy, in which children inherit only the genes from one parent.

Dr. Timothy J. Hallman
Berkeley, California

Dr. Hallman is a leading physicist studying the properties of nuclear matter at very high densities. He developed an apparatus to find electron-positron pairs emitted from collisions of very heavy nuclei. His work was a forerunner of studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Dr. Guillermina Jasso
New York, New York

Dr. Jasso has had a distinguished career as a special assistant to the director of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Subsequently, she became research director of the U.S. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. She is a specialist in mathematical sociology and in theories of distributive justice.

Dr. Willis C. Maddrey
Dallas, Texas

Dr. Maddrey, whose research interest is in various areas of liver disease, has made significant contributions related to chronic hepatitis and alcohol-induced liver disease. He has been honored for excellence in teaching and has served as president of the American College of Physicians. He was one of the founders of the American Liver Foundation and recently was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London.

Dr. Dinakar Ramakrishnan
Pasadena, California

Dr. Ramakrishnan, a professor of mathematics at the California Institute of Technology, has made contributions to the general theory of Zeta functions. Of particular importance is his work on the zeta functions associated with modular surfaces and linear groups of symmetrics. He was appointed full professor eight years after he earned his Ph.D.

Dr. Felix Noah Rutledge*
Houston, Texas

Dr. Rutledge, a professor of gynecologic oncology at the University of Texas, was among the first to use culdoscopy as a gynecologic diagnostic tool and to recognize the pathologic features of atypical endometrial hyperplasia, which has subsequently been found to be a precursor of endometrial cancer.

Dr. John Anton Waldhausen
Hershey, Pennsylvania

Dr. Waldhausen has played a critical role in the development and growth of the Pennsylvania State University's Medical Center in Hershey. He has been chairman of the College of Medicine's Surgery Department since 1970 and has practiced cardiac surgery, with a special interest in pediatric cardiac surgery.

Dr. James Watt*
Dr. Watt was a retired assistant surgeon general for the U.S. Public Health Service. He founded the American Board of Preventive Medicine and served as chairman of the World Health Organization's executive committee. His research focused on tropical and infectious diseases. He encouraged international efforts to eradicate smallpox and control cholera.


Dr. Romesh C. Batra
Rolla, Missouri

Dr. Batra's research has embraced the areas of fluid mechanics, elasticity, viscoelasticity, penetration mechanics, and adiabatic shear banding. For six consecutive years, he was honored by the University of Missouri with a Faculty Excellence Award in recognition of his superior performance in research, teaching, and service.

Dr. Myron F. Goodman
Los Angeles, California A recognized authority

on the biochemical basis of mutations, Dr. Goodman has developed a unique research program that has yielded original insights into the natural causes of errors in DNA replication. His models of error correction and prevention have provided a theoretical basis for an understanding of the molecular basis of genetic disease.

Dr. Morley D. Hollenberg
Calgary, Alberta, Canada

A leading figure in the field of peptide hormone research, Dr. Hollenberg's innovative and critical investigations of epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) and insulin have significantly advanced understanding of hormone- receptor interactions.

Dr. Edward Watson Hook
Charlottesville, Virginia

Dr. Hook's studies of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of bacterial infections have advanced knowledge of the clinical manifestations of endocarditis and the mechanisms by which salmonella develop antibiotic resistance. His tenure as director of the Department of Medicine at the University of Virginia is among the longest on record in the United States.

Dr. Thomas S. Inui
Boston, Massachusetts

A leading example of the academic physician-scholar, Dr. Inui has been devoted to the application of the principles of community medicine in his everyday clinical and scholarly work. Among the issues with which he has been most concerned are the effectiveness of health services, patient-physician communication, and preventive care in clinical practice.

Dr. Martin Hume Johnson
Cambridge, England

An outstanding teacher, writer, and experimentalist, Dr. Johnson has made major contributions to the understanding of early mammalian development, including that of humans. His research approach to a rational study of early human development had important practical consequences for in vitro fertilization.

Dr. Baruch A. Kipnis
Haifa, Israel

Combining theoretical studies of land use and metropolitan development with studies of rural settlement and industrial concentration, Dr. Kipnis has made major contributions to research on spatial aspects of human settlements. He is founder and head of the Haifa and Galilee Research Institute, which is conducting research on geographic aspects of northern Israel and adjacent regions.

Dr. Edward R. Laws, Jr.
Charlottesville, Virginia

An expert in the management of pituitary tumors and gliomas, Dr. Laws' research has contributed significantly in the areas of neurooncology, histochemistry, cytochemistry, and experimental biology of brain tumors.

Dr. Gavril W. Pasternak
New York, New York

As one of the leading opiate basic researchers in the country, Dr. Pasternak's contributions have involved differentiating subtypes of opiate receptors that are differentially affected by drugs, leading to identification of agents that can provide analgesia with a lower incidence of side effects.

Dr. Timothy J. Pedley
Leeds, England

A leading authority in physiological fluid mechanics, Dr. Pedley has made numerous contributions to the dynamics of unsteady blood flow by bringing analytical and numerical techniques in fluid mechanics to bear on various physiological processes. His work has clarified many aspects of blood flow separation, instability and bifurcation.

Dr. Bernard Robaire
Montreal, Quebec, Canada

With research interests spanning basic studies of reproductive toxicology and fertility regulation, Dr. Robaire has made significant discoveries in the areas of regulation of the structure and function of the mammalian epididymis, the effects of toxic agents on fertility, and the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary- testicular axis in mammals.

Dr. Robert J. Ruben
New York, New York A pioneer in the f

ield of research on the development of the auditory system, Dr. Ruben is noted for ground-breaking studies on the organ culture of the mammalian inner ear and for important clinical contributions to the understanding of human communication as it relates to both hearing and speech.

Dr. George A. Silver
New Haven, Connecticut

As a leading figure in maternal and child health in the United States, Dr. Silver has served at virtually all levels of the health care system. He has been the source of provocative and stimulating ideas, questioning the basic tenets of the health care delivery system and providing innovative suggestions for new forms of organization and finance.

Dr. Jean Starobinski
Geneva, Switzerland

One of the most prominent scholars in the field of French studies, Dr. Starobinski's books and essays on the literature and intellectual history of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries have earned him great stature and influence in the fields of French studies, literary criticism, and psychoanalytic criticism.

Dr. Thomas Earl Starzl
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

A pre-eminent clinician-scientist, Dr. Starzl has made major contributions in kidney transplantation and was a pioneer in liver transplantation. He was also a pioneer in cluster transplants, the transplanting of several organs simultaneously into a patient.

Dr. Juzer M. Vasi
Bombay, India

An internationally recognized expert in the growth of silicon dioxide and in concomitant defect states that limit or determine device performance, Dr. Vasi has made major contributions to the field of microelectronics, including an understanding of electric breakdown of submicron thin films and solution of major problems in the breakdown and instability of insulators.


Dr. Marvin B. Becker
Ann Arbor, Michigan

A distinguished historian, Dr. Becker has made outstanding contributions to Italian Renaissance history and, through the application of anthropological insights and methods, to the theory and methodology of history in general. In his seminal volumes entitled Florence in Transition, he depicted broad economic, social, and political structures and processes in early Renaissance Florence.

Dr. Anthony J. Bron
Oxford, England

Dr. Bron is an acknowledged world expert on corneal dystrophies and infections, cataract morphogenesis and pathogenesis, and other ocular diseases. He is only the second full professor of ophthalmology in Oxford University's long history. His work was recently recognized by a prize from the Alcon Research Institute, one of the highest international honors in investigative ophthalmology.

Dr. Lincoln C. Chen
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Dr. Chen has published numerous papers on his work in Bangladesh with the Ford Foundation that have added fundamental knowledge about the epidemiology and control of diarrheal diseases and about the interrelationships among malnutrition, morbidity, and mortality. A worldwide search led to his appointment as the first Taro Takemi Professor of International Health at Harvard University.

Dr. Mary Allen Engle
New York, New York

Dr. Engle's research at Cornell University and New York Hospital has contributed richly to the field of pediatric cardiology, with special application to the selection of children for cardiac surgery and follow-up after surgery. She holds the Stavros S. Niarchos Professorship of Pediatric Cardiology at Cornell University Medical College. In 1991, she received the institution's Maurice R. Greenberg Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Melvin H. Epstein
Providence, Rhode Island

While on the neurosurgical faculty at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Dr. Epstein carried out laboratory studies that have done much to increase the body of knowledge of the secretory process of human spinal fluid. His work delineating the second messenger of spinal fluid production in the choroid plexus is a classic paper in the field. He is now professor and chairman of neurosurgery at Brown University School of Medicine.

Dr. Thomas P. Fehlner
Notre Dame, Indiana

An internationally recognized authority on boron hydride chemistry, Dr. Fehl ner began his research in that field while he was a postdoctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins. He has lectured on the subject at universities across the world. In recent years, he has shifted his research emphasis to synthetic inorganic chemistry and continues his research as professor of chemistry at the University of Notre Dame.

Dr. John F. Foss
East Lansing, Michigan

Dr. Foss is a widely known experimentalist in fluid mechanics and has developed novel methods for the improvement of measurement of turbulent flows. He has also made major contributions to undergraduate mechanical engineering education and developed an excellent laboratory course in fluid dynamics at Michigan State University. His approach and specific exercises have been adopted by a number of other universities.

Dr. Stephen C. Joseph
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Dr. Joseph has a distinguished career as both a scholar and active investigator in the field of public health. Among other important contributions, his work has helped combat the AIDS epidemic in New York. He has served in numerous government posts, including that of deputy assistant administrator for the U.S. Agency for International Development. He is currently dean of the School of Public Health and a professor at the University of Minnesota.

Dr. James Roderick Jude
Miami, Florida

After training under Dr. Alfred Blalock, Dr. Jude continued the tradition of major advances in cardiovascular surgery and related areas, making especially important contributions to the development of closed chest cardiac massage and electrical defibrillation of the heart. In addition to a distinguished career in surgery, he is clinical professor of surgery at the University of Miami School of Medicine.

Dr. Otto F. Kernberg
White Plains, New York

An internationally recognized investigator and clinician in the field of psychiatry, Dr. Kernberg trained at Johns Hopkins with Dr. Jerome Frank and is currently associate chairman and medical director of New York Hospital Cornell Medical Center, Westchester Division. His work has earned him numerous awards, including, in 1990, the first Mary S. Sigourney Award for Distinguished Contributions in Psychoanalysis.

Dr. Kunio Okuda
Chiba, Japan

Dr. Okuda's interest in biochemistry was stimulated by work at Johns Hopkins on the physiological properties of vitamin B-12. His research resulted in several papers on the importance of this vitamin during pregnancy and on its interaction with factor present in gastric juices that is necessary for the absorption of the vitamin into the bloodstream. He is now professor emeritus at Chiba University Medical School.

Dr. Emmanuel T. Sarris
Xanthi, Greece

As a member of the European Science Foundation's Committee of Space Research, Dr. Sarris has played a leading role in planning the European space program. As professor of electrodynamics at the University of Thrace, he has greatly broadened the university's role in space science. He was recently appointed director of the Institute for Ionospheric and Space Physics at the Athens Observatory, the principal organization in Greece for space research.

Dr. Antonio Ramirez de Verger
Sevilla, Spain

Dr. de Verger's studies of classical authors have led to the publication of a number of outstanding scholarly works, including a critical edition of Ovid's Amores on which he began work while a visiting professor at Johns Hopkins. He has not only edited ancient authors, but also worked on late medieval texts that were of great importance for the voyages of discovery that ultimately led to the discovery of America.

Dr. Samuel S.C. Yen
La Jolla, California

An internationally known expert in neuroendocrinology, Dr. Yen is co-author of a text, Reproductive Endocrinology, which is considered a classic in its field and is now in its third edition. He is professor of reproductive medicine, director of the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, and holder of the W.R. Persons Chair in Reproductive Medicine at the University of California at San Diego.


Dr. James C. Allen
Charleston, South Carolina

A distinguished clinician and investigator, Dr. Allen made seminal observations as a postdoctoral fellow that led to the finding of the GM allotypes on immunoglobulin heavy chains. Later, in collaboration with Dr. Michael Apicella, he demonstrated the immunopathogenesis of pleural effusions in tuberculosis.

Dr. Camilla Persson Benbow
Ames, Iowa

A productive and creative investigator, Dr. Benbow received four Hopkins degrees, including a doctorate, by age 24 and was promoted to full professor at Iowa State at 33. She is widely published in educational development and psychology. Formerly a co- director of the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth at Hopkins, she has gone on to direct the study's Iowa State location.

Dr. Morgan Berthrong
Colorado Springs, Colorado

Dr. Berthrong is widely known for his definitive studies of radiation injury. He is regarded as an expert diagnostic pathologist and an inspiring teacher. His list of publications includes entries in every decade from the 1940s to the 1990s.

Dr. David Grob
New York, New York

Dr. Grob, a medical educator and a researcher with a record of scholarship over nearly half a century, has long been interested in the physiology and pathophysiology of neuromuscular transmission and in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In 1982, his research in neuromuscular diseases won him the achievement award of the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation.

Dr. Lewis H. Kuller
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Kuller is one of the nation's leaders in clinical and chronic disease epidemiology, and has applied epidemiological methods to a wide variety of public health and clinical problems. His publications play a significant role in bridging the gap between epidemiology and clinical medicine.

Dr. Michel F. Lechat
Brussels, Belgium

Dr. Lechat has served as president of the International Leprosy Association and the International Leprosy Union, and was also one of the first to suggest that epidemiologic principles could be applied to improving disaster preparedness and response. He has served as a World Health Organization consultant or adviser in two dozen nations.

Dr. George W. Mitchell, Jr.
San Antonio, Texas

Dr. Mitchell, an expert in gynecologic oncology and gynecological surgery, has set standards and policy at every level within the field of obstetrics and gynecology. His contributions have been recognized by the establishment of a chair in his name at Tufts University School of Medicine, where he is a former department chairman and now an emeritus professor.

Dr. Antonia C. Novello
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Novello, surgeon general of the U.S. Public Health Service, is the author or co-author of more than 75 articles and chapters on public health policy, nephrology, and pediatrics. She is an unflagging advocate of public health training and the need to attract more women and minorities into the field. She continues the tradition of using the office of surgeon general as a platform from which to make important contributions to public knowledge of health issues, including AIDS, smoking, and immunization.

Dr. Gary A. Prinz
Washington, D.C.

As a postdoctoral fellow, Dr. Prinz was the first to observe evidence for coupling between rare-earth ions in an insulating host crystal structure using high resolution spectroscopic measurements. At the Naval Research Laboratory, he was the first to use pulsed molecular gas lasers as sources to carry out magnetic resonance experiments in the far infrared. He was elected a fellow of the American Physical Society in 1984.

Dr. Emil Reisler
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Reisler is internationally known for insightful work on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the contractile proteins of muscle. He is considered a world leader in using biochemical approaches to clarify the molecular processes in muscle movement and force generation.

Dr. Michel J.A. Robert-Nicoud
Grenoble, France

Dr. Robert-Nicoud is known for pioneering contributions to the study of the cell nucleus, and chromosomes in particular. He is also highly regarded for his application of novel microtechniques to the study and manipulation of chromosomes, and especially for single chromosome microsurgery and confocal microscopy.

Dr. James B. Snow, Jr.
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Snow's publications cover the entire range of otolaryngology, including taste and smell, head and neck cancer, and auditory research. His studies on the blood flow of the inner ear, done nearly 20 years ago, are still quoted in the clinical literature. He has been director of the National Institutes of Health's new Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders since 1990.

Dr. Katepalli R. Sreenivasan New Haven, Connecticut An established authority in the field of turbulence, Dr. Sreenivasan, a professor of both mechanical engineering and physics at Yale, has, in recent years, pioneered the application of the new techniques of chaos and fractals to the study of turbulence, opening a new field of research.

Dr. G. Rainey Williams
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Dr. Williams, one of the outstanding cardiothoracic surgeons trained by Dr. Alfred Blalock in the 1940s and 1950s, is one of the few surgeons in the nation who have remained broadly based, performing general as well as thoracic, cardiac, and vascular surgery. He was among the first to successfully perform limb reimplantation.

Dr. Edward Ming-Yang Wu
Taipei, Taiwan

Dr. Wu has, since 1989, supervised Taiwan's water pollution prevention and control efforts and research. He also has done extensive research in mathematical modeling of water quality, environmental systems analysis, water and waste water engineering, and water resources engineering and systems analysis.


Dr. Mason Cooke Andrews
Norfolk, Virginia

In a distinguished career of research, practice, and leadership in the field of gynecology and obstetrics, Dr. Andrews, as an educator and scholar, has expressed himself most effectively through his conceptual development and establishment of the Eastern Virginia Medical School. He has also contributed substantially to the public welfare in his community, being the major force in the revitalization of Norfolk's waterfront. Dr. Jeremiah A. Barondess New York, New York Dr. Barondess is a distinguished practitioner of medicine, scholar, and medical statesman. His work demonstrates the importance of scholarly inquiry in improving and extending the place of medicine and physician care in our society. He has had a profound impact on three decades of residents in medicine, and his elegance as a clinical teacher is nationally renowned.

Dr. Robert J. Blendon
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Blendon is one of the foremost researchers and policy analysts in the field of health policy and management. As senior vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, he developed major research and demonstration initiatives on issues concerning access to health care for the disadvantaged. He has combined his management and operational responsibilities with a productive career in research on access to health care, public program analysis, and health policy and public opinion.

Dr. Alfonso Bosellini
Ferrara, Italy

Dr. Bosellini is internationally known for his geological work in the Dolomites of northern Italy. Recently, he was awarded Italy's highest honor for a scientist-the Gold Medal of the Italian National Academy. He is the author of more than 90 publications in his field and has just finished a major, post-graduate-level work on sedimentary geology.

Dr. Robert H. Brook
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Brook is a leading figure in the development of the science of studies of the quality of health care and of health care delivery in the United States. He has been frequently honored and cited for his work. His research and publications deal with an impressive array of current and future health care and health systems issues. They reflect an incisive understanding of the complexities and rapid change in the organization, outreach, assessment, and relevance of the nation's health care system.

Dr. Evan Calkins
Buffalo, New York

Dr. Calkins' career as a leader in American medicine reflects his many achievements, from chief resident at Massachusetts General Hospital to chairman of the Department of Medicine at the Buffalo General Hospital to chairman of the Department of Medicine at SUNY-Buffalo. In the latter position, his vigorous and visionary leadership brought the department into national and international prominence. He has, in more recent years, turned his energetic and incisive focus to the issues and problems of geriatrics and gerontology.

Dr. Pedro Cuatrecasas
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Cuatrecasas' pioneering work in the development and use of solid-phase technology for affinity purification of specific molecules has provided a radically new approach to the isolation of proteins and the analysis of enzyme-substrate binding, ligand-receptor interactions, and hormone action.

Dr. Herbert W. Dickerman*
Dr. Dickerman's early research contributions were in his seminal investigation of chain initiation in protein biosynthesis. Even while heavily engaged as an administrator in the New York State Department of Health, he was still able to continue his research and to branch out into a new field of inquiry, studying biosynthesis and details of modes of action of estrogens. Beyond his research and administrative responsibilities as commissioner of health of New York State, Dr. Dickerman played a major role in organizing efforts to understand and combat AIDS in that state.

Dr. Gottlieb C. Friesinger II
Nashville, Tennessee

Dr. Friesinger is a distinguished cardiovascular investigator, clinical cardiologist, and teacher. His research began with a focus on ischemic heart disease with special attention to coronary blood flow and the natural history of ischemic heart disease in relation to coronary arterio-graphic findings. The Friesinger classification of coronary arteriographic anatomy was one of the first attempts to standardize the reporting of results of the then-new tool, the coronary arteriogram. He has also investigated many other fields in cardiology, especially ventricular function and the interaction between platelets and the vessel wall.

Dr. Elmer G. Gilbert
Ann Arbor, Michigan

For three decades, Dr. Gilbert has been a leading figure in the mathematical aspects of systems and control engineering. His publications on the structure of linear systems and the linear decoupling problems are classics, and for many years he has been an important contributor to the literature on optimal control. More recently, Dr. Gilbert has made fundamental contributions to nonlinear systems and control and has been exploring control problems in robotics.

Dr. Cyrus Herzl Gordon
New York, New York

Dr. Gordon's distinguished career has established his reputation as one of the most prominent Semitists of his generation. In the wide range of his many achievements, he will probably be remembered most for his contributions to the new and challenging field of Ugaritic studies, where he and his writings have held a dominant position since the discovery and deciphering of this new Semitic language that is of enormous significance for biblical studies.

Dr. John Collins Harvey
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Harvey is a distinguished academic physician and clinical scholar. He has played a key role in establishing the gerontology program at the Georgetown University School of Medicine. He has demonstrated a lifelong interest in issues of medical ethics and, after 10 years of study on a part-time basis, he recently received the Ph.D. degree in moral theology from St. Mary's University. Because of his understanding and knowledge of medical ethics issues, he has been an important contributor to national and international conferences on a wide range of ethical topics.

Dr. Nathan O. Hatch
Notre Dame, Indiana

Through his outstanding monograph, The Sacred Cause of Liberty: Republican Thought and the Millennium in Revolutionary New England, Dr. Hatch has illuminated the relationship between religion and politics in revolutionary New England and thereby established himself as one of the outstanding younger scholars in early American history. He is currently a professor in the Department of History and vice president for advanced studies at the University of Notre Dame.

Dr. Bernadine P. Healy
Cleveland, Ohio

Dr. Healy occupies a distinguished position of leadership in American medicine as chair of the Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. She has achieved a singularly impressive record of accomplishment as a researcher in cardiac pathology and cardiomyopathy, as well as in her administrative career, as assistant dean for postdoctoral programs at The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, as deputy director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy at the White House, as past president of the American Federation for Clinical Research, and as president of the American Heart Association.

Dr. William Daniel Hillis
Waco, Texas

Dr. Hillis has an outstanding record of intellectual and academic achievements and an unusually strong record of community service. His contributions to medical research have been in the fields of virology and infectious diseases. His description, in 1961, of hepatitis in a chimpanzee colony was the first indication that chimpanzees may be susceptible to human hepatitis, leading to a unique model for studies of pathogenesis and vaccination with hepatitis B virus. Other research has included a wide range of virus groups, especially with regard to their relevance to clinical medicine, such as cytomegalovirus and hepatitis B infections in renal transplant recipients and the role of viruses in kidney diseases.

Dr. Lee Milton Howard
Falls Church, Virginia

Dr. Howard has been one of the nation's major contributors to solving health problems and establishing health programs in developing countries. As chief of the USAID malaria eradication branch and later as director of USAID's Office of Health, he was the focus of the agency's many programs designed to improve health in developing countries. Dr. Howard formulated the agency's first efforts to extend low-cost health delivery systems on a national scale. These initiatives were the direct predecessors of the World Health Organization's 1978 conference on primary health care and formed the basis of the WHO "Health for All" program. Under his leadership in the Office of Health, A.I.D. extended its efforts in maternal and child health, environmental sanitation, and programs of oral rehydration.

Dr. John O'Neal Humphries
Columbia, South Carolina

Dr. Humphries is best known for his contributions to cardiology, both as an investigator and as a teacher. His major accomplishments in research deal with the correlation of cardiac physical signs with physiology as determined by cardiac catheterization and angiography. A background in epidemiology also led to one of his major contributions investigating the natural history of ischemic heart disease in relation to arteriographic findings in a group of patients followed over a period of 12 years.

Dr. Maurice H. Lessof
London, England

Dr. Lessof is the senior figure in clinical immunology in the United Kingdom today. Throughout his career, he has also stayed at the forefront of allergy research. He initiated studies into Addison's disease and Hashimoto's Struma. Subsequent investigations included food allergy, asthma, lupus, eczema, urticaria, migraine, and bee venom allergy.

Dr. Anthony P. Mahowald
Cleveland, Ohio

Dr. Mahowald is an international leader in developmental biology in general, and in the area of Drosophila developmental genetics in particular. He is well-known for his research on the Drosophila embryo and for his masterful combination of genetic and developmental methods to the elucidation of the cytological and biochemical basis of embryogenesis. He has demonstrated the continuity of polar granules during the life cycle of Drosophila and provided one of the first documentations of DNA in mitochondria. With Allan Spaulding, he co-discovered DNA amplification in follicle cells.

Dr. James O. Mason
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Mason is assistant secretary for health, Department of Health and Human Services. He was formerly executive director, Utah Department of Health, and has held numerous positions in the U.S. Public Health Service, culminating in the directorship of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. He is the author of numerous scientific papers in the field of public health.

Dr. Michael H. Merson
Geneva, Switzerland

Dr. Merson has had an exceptional career with service in a variety of settings. The primary focus of his research has been the study and treatment of diarrheal disease. From his work as chief of the Enteric Diseases Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to chief medical epidemiologist of the Cholera Research Laboratory in Bangladesh to his current achievements as director of both the World Health Organization's Program to Control Diarrhoeal Diseases and the Acute Respiratory Infection Control Program, Dr. Merson has amply demonstrated his extraordinary skills and commitment to the relief of major health problems of developing countries.

Dr. Allen H. Neims
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Neims is one of the outstanding scholars in pharmacology today, having made major contributions to our understanding of numerous drugs and their biological mechanisms, including caffeine. He has made important contributions, also, to the understanding of mitochondrial DNA.

Dr. Stephen L. Passman
Albuquerque, New Mexico

Dr. Passman's early studies focused on the kinematics of continuous media. He later investigated Cosserat theories of plates and shells and then the flow of granular materials, porous media, multiphase flow, and theories of damage. His research in the past decade has concentrated on mathematical the ories of fundamental aspects of thermomec-hanics of materials.

Dr. Mario G. Pitteri
Padova, Italy

Dr. Pitteri has studied deeply and broadly in mathematics, the foundations of mechanics, thermomechanics and its history, and the mathematical aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. He has also explored thermodynamics, the non-linear Boltzmann equation, and the twinning crystals. His published work on the latter is already a classic and widely cited. Dr. Pitteri's papers on kinetic theory provide counterexamples refuting widely diffused and incorrect beliefs.

Dr. Sheikh Riazuddin
Lahore, Pakistan

Dr. Riazuddin has distinguished credentials both as a prominent biochemist and molecular biologist and as an educator and director of an international research center associated with the University of the Punjab in his native Pakistan. He has made significant contributions to our understanding of the range of biochemical mechanisms employed by prokaryotic organisms in the repair of chromosomes damaged by ultraviolet light or alkylating agents. Dr. Riazuddin has recently extended his research into more applied areas. This work has led to the discovery and isolation of several new enzymes, some of which will surely be of significant practical value to the fields of molecular biology and recombinant DNA research.

Dr. David L. Rimoin
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Rimoin is a leader in the field of medical genetics and was the founding chairman of the American Board of Medical Genetics. He is known for his contributions in the area of the genetics of endocrine disorders and particularly for his contributions to the understanding of genetic disorders of the skeleton and inheritable disorders of connective tissue.

Dr. T. Franklin Williams
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Williams' career has been a dynamic blend of several research areas. His early contributions involved the study of water and electrolyte physiology in man and then on factors influencing the quality of medical care and family studies of disease. Subsequently, Dr. Williams turned his focus to glucose and potassium fluxes in the liver, and produced perceptive writings on practical problems of diabetes management. For the past 15 years, he has earned a worldwide reputation for his studies on the specific medical problems of the elderly.

Dr. David B. Wilson
Ithaca, New York

As a leader in the field of molecular biochemistry, Dr. Wilson has successfully combined the intellectual and experimental techniques of biochemistry, genetics, and regulatory biology in exploring complex processes occurring within bacterial cells. He has already contributed significantly to our understanding of the complex bacterial cellulase enzyme system, and is adding considerably to the knowledge of mechanisms of bacterial protein secretion. His unusually imaginative, thorough, and disciplined basic research is shedding new light on the detailed molecular mechanisms by which living cells control some of their most vital functions.


Dr. Ian N.R. Creese
Newark, New Jersey

Dr. Creese has focused his research on the link between behavior and specific neurotransmitters. Subsequent to the publication of classic papers on the role of dopamine and the effects of other psychoactive drugs, he was able to identify two distinct types of dopamine receptors. Dr. Creese's work has direct application to the understanding of supersensitivity to neuroleptic drugs and to the alteration in synaptic transmission with aging.

Dr. Paul Allen Ebert
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Ebert is one of the world's outstanding pediatric heart surgeons. In addition to his clinical activities, he has played a major role in the development of surgery in this country, has contributed extensively to the literature, and chaired departments at two major institutions before becoming director of the American College of Surgeons.

Dr. Charles Edwards
Albany, New York

Dr. Edwards has concentrated his research on the electro- neurophysiology of single cells, where he made signal contributions to our understanding of the processes that control and modify electrical activity of nerve and muscle. In addition to his laboratory research, Dr. Edwards is noted for his role in international education and as the author of highly regarded critical reviews that are especially valued for their historical perspective.

Dr. Neil Heiman
Fremont, California

Dr. Heiman developed important techniques using muon spin resonance to study the magnetic behavior of impurities in solids. His investigations have been especially useful in describing the properties of ultrathin magnetic films, a field of intense commercial interest.

Dr. Gordon R. Hennigar
Charleston, South Carolina

Dr. Hennigar is a prominent diagnostic pathologist whose research focus has been on chemical and drug toxicity. He also has taken a lead role in the development of forensic pathology in a number of eastern states and is active in many professional societies.

Dr. Dudley P. Jackson
Washington, D.C.

Dr. Jackson began his work in hematology with studies of the effects of radiation injury. His later work, which has been recognized by a number of important awards, has concentrated on blood coagulation mechanisms and the role of platelets.

Dr. Sushila Nayar
New Delhi, India

Dr. Nayar has been a central figure in the development of health care programs and educational institutes in India for more than four decades. During her service as Minister of Health, many fundamental health programs were established, including the treatment and control of malaria, venereal disease, tuberculosis, and leprosy. She also was active in the establishment of emergency medical services in New Delhi. Dr. Nayar is the founder of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, which brings medical training to the rural areas, and she continues to be active in programs of the institute.

Dr. Sidney Raffel
Stanford, California

Dr. Raffel conducted early work on the immunological specificity of tissue and cell antigens, including investigations of a group of heat-stable haptens of organs and tissues. His studies delineated the relationship between hypersensitivity and immunity in tuberculosis and related diseases. Dr. Raffel has been an active participant in the development of several national committees concerned with research in allergies and infectious diseases.

Dr. Bernard Roizman
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Roizman is one of the world's outstanding virologists. Following his early work with poliomyelitis, he has studied the herpes virus with special emphasis on its relationship to cancer. Dr. Roizman's educational efforts include editorships of several journals and organizational roles in a number of international meetings.

Dr. Robert D. Simoni
Stanford, California

Dr. Simoni is a leading contributor to our understanding of cellular transport. He has studied the properties of these processes for a number of systems, with special interest in sugar and cholesterol transport.

Dr. Henry Sussman
Buffalo, New York

Dr. Sussman is an expert on literary comparisons and on the use of language. Wide-ranging in his approach to literature, Dr. Sussman has written and lectured on authors from Hegel and Hawthorne to Kierkegaard and Kafka.

Dr. Leslie P. Weiner
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Weiner is a leader in the field of neurology. Recently, he has applied molecular biological techniques to the study of chronic viral infection of the nervous system and to chronic demyelination with great success. Dr. Weiner has served the academic community as a member of the advisory board of a number of national organizations concerned with neurology.

Dr. David G. Whittingham
Carshalton, United Kingdom

Dr. Whittingham has made numerous fundamental contributions to our understanding of the cellular and molecular processes involved in fertilization, embryogenesis, and oviductal function. His description of the role of energy sources in gamete differentiation and his development of in vitro preservation techniques for mammalian embryos continue to have a profound impact on the agricultural and reproductive sciences as well as on genetics and developmental biology.


Dr. Lilia Alberghina
Milan, Italy

A specialist in plant physiology, Dr. Alberghina's research on ribosomal growth and the synthesis of RNA has clarified the mechanisms of cell regulation in microbial and mammalian systems. Currently, she is engaged in a program to explore the use of biotechnology in Italian industry. Dr. Alberghina is the recipient of the 1986 Antonio Feltrinelli Award for Biology from the National Academy of Lincei.

Dr. Bobby Ray Alford
Houston, Texas

Dr. Alford is an authority on the physiology of hearing and balance in animals and man. He has been honored for his research and leadership abilities by the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, and the Michael E. DeBakey International Society.

Dr. John D. Axe
Upton, New York

Dr. Axe's research contributions in spectroscopy have advanced atomic and crystal field optical spectroscopy, electronic transition probabilities, laser spectroscopy, and structured phase transitions by neutron scattering. Dr. Axe is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the recipient of the Bertram Eugene Warren Diffraction Physics Award, and a member of several committees concerned with the national research program in condensed matter physics.

Dr. John Bongaarts
New York, New York

An internationally recognized scholar of mathematical demography and demographic methodology, Dr. Bongaarts' quantified model on the proximate determinants of fertility has had a major influence in identifying and resolving issues in fertility policy. In a recent publication, he has suggested an alternative to the one-child family in China, a proposal which is stimulating an examination of alternative paths to population stabilization and which will influence the lives of hundreds of millions of people.

Dr. R. Gordon Douglas, Jr.
New York, New York

Dr. Douglas is recognized as an international authority on viral infections, especially those of respiratory tract viruses. His research has included the natural history of infection, mechanism of spread, immune response, and vaccine efficacy and chemotherapy on a wide range of viruses including herpes and rhinovirus.

Dr. Thomas F. Ferris
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Dr. Ferris conducted the definitive studies of the role of angiotensin and prostaglandins in the regulation of uterine blood flow in pregnancy. Considered an authority on diseases of the kidney and renal physiology, Dr. Ferris is also widely recognized as a teacher, having served as visiting professor at more than 30 institutions during the past decade.

Dr. Neal Nathanson
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

An epidemiologist, virologist, and immunologist, Dr. Nathanson served for 23 years on the faculty of the School of Hygiene and Public Health. In addition to major contributions to the epidemiology and virology of poliomyelitis, the slow viruses, and encephalitis, he has examined important theoretical considerations for the eradication of viruses from human populations.

Dr. Pieter A.C. Raats
Haren, The Netherlands

An expert on the mechanics of soils, Dr. Raats has created mathematical models describing the transport of mass and momentum for particular kinds and circumstances of soils. He has served on a number of Dutch national committees concerned with soil science.

Dr. Thomas A. Stamey
Stanford, California

Dr. Stamey is internationally recognized for his understanding of renovascular hypertension and recurrent urinary tract infections. His work has led to effective treatment of such infections, particularly in women. Dr. Stamey is now directing a major study of the pathology of prostatic cancer and the role of oncogenes in the development and progression of the disease. He served on the faculty of the School of Medicine from 1958 to 1961.

Dr. Katharine Boucot Sturgis*
In addition to extensive work on diseases of the chest, from tuberculosis to lung cancer, Dr. Sturgis was responsible for the development of the Department of Preventive Medicine at Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. A nationally recognized leader in preventive medicine, she served as the first woman president or vice president of more than a half-dozen professional organizations.

Dr. Edvardas Varnauskas
Guteborg, Sweden

A cardiologist who has made important contributions to our understanding of pulmonary blood volume, Dr. Varnauskas has provided new insights into the relationships between pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity at rest and during exercise. As a World Health Organization consultant, he has played an active role in guiding cardiac care throughout the world.

Dr. Karlman Wasserman
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Wasserman is a leader in the study of respiratory control during exercise and its role in pulmonary rehabilitation. He has been particularly active in the study of respiratory physiology and pulmonary medicine.

Dr. Samuel Alonzo Wells, Jr.
St. Louis, Missouri

One of the outstanding leaders in academic surgery today, Dr. Wells is especially known for his laboratory and clinical investigations in surgical endocrinology. He has received the Resident Essay Award from the James Ewing Society, a Special Fellowship from the National Cancer Institute, and the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Duke University Medical Center.


Dr. Moshe Abeles
Philadelphia, Pennsylva

nia Dr. Abeles is widely recognized for his work on the neocortex and local circuits in the brain. He has received prizes for his papers on EEG synchronizing and desynchronizing neurons and for his work on computer-aided analysis of nerve cell activity.

Dr. Haroutune Armenian
Beirut, Lebanon

Dr. Armenian is a leader in epidemiology, with interests ranging from cancer and heart disease to medical care delivery practices. As dean of the School of Public Health at the American University of Beirut, he has continued excellent research and educational administration despite the city's current chaos.

Dr. Ernesto Carafoli
Zurich, Switzerland

Well known for his studies on the role of mitochondria in calcium metabolism, Dr. Carafoli helped identify the uptake and exit pathways for calcium in this organelle. He is also an authority on the bioenergetics of normal and pathological states.

Dr. Denton A. Cooley
Houston, Texas

One of the world's premier heart surgeons, Dr. Cooley was among the small group of surgeons working at Johns Hopkins with Dr. Alfred Blalock in pioneering the development of cardiac surgery. He has been honored throughout the world for his outstanding contributions to the field.

Dr. Gilles Marc Corcos
Berkeley, California

Combining work in theoretical and experimental aspects of fluid mechanics, Dr. Corcos was a pioneer in measuring the pressure fluctuations and acoustical properties of turbulent boundary layers. More recently, he has focused on the mathematical modeling of turbulent shear layers.

Dr. Milton Thomas Edgerton
Charlottesville, Virginia

A prolific contributor to the literature of reconstructive surgery and a skilled surgeon, Dr. Edgerton has advanced the procedures used in reconstruction necessitated by birth defects, war wounds, cancer, and burns. He has also been concerned with the psychiatric aspects of such surgery.

Dr. Wayne A. Hendrickson
New York, New York

Using crystallographic and magnetic resonance techniques, Dr. Hendrickson has helped to determine the structure of biologically important molecules. He has also contributed to the advancement of analysis techniques used in crystallography, and performed important long-term studies of hemoglobin and hemerythrins.

Dr. Georgeanna Seegar Jones
Norfolk, Virginia

Dr. Georgeanna Seegar Jones has had a distinguished career in gynecology and obstetrics, concentrating on the effects of hormones on the reproductive process; her work has been complemented for almost 50 years with that of her husband, Dr. Howard Jones. Together they have won international acclaim for the establishment of the first in vitro fertilization program in the United States.

Dr. Howard Wilbur Jones
Norfolk, Virginia

Working with his wife, Dr. Georgeanna Seegar Jones, Dr. Howard Jones has concentrated on the surgical aspects of gynecology, with a particular focus on aspects of malformation and on cancer. His studies, conducted in collaboration with his wife, led to the first in vitro fertilization program in the United States.

Dr. Robert G. Petersdorf
La Jolla, California

For more than 30 years, Dr. Petersdorf has been a leader in research on bacteremia and its consequences, such as fever, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Moreover, he has been a practical and forceful leader in the evolution of the academic medical establishment to meet society's needs.

Dr. Raymond Seltser
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Seltser is widely recognized for his epidemiological studies in the treatment of pneumonia, cerebrovascular disease, and the effects of radiation on physicians. Dean of the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh, he is also well-known for his outstanding leadership in public health education.

Dr. Morton M. Weber
Saint Louis, Missouri

Dr. Weber is an internationally recognized authority on electron transport in biologically important materials, especially Mycobacterium phlei. He has also made important contributions in his research on the effect of light and other regulators in electron transport and energy metabolism.

Dr. William O. Williams
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

An international authority in the field of continuum thermomechanics, Dr. Williams has concentrated on the mechanics and thermomech-anics of mixtures. His contributions have ranged from discussion of the foundation of thermodynamics and mature theory to models for muscular contraction.


Dr. Jo Eirik Asvall
Copenhagen, Denmark

Dr. Asvall's efforts led to the reorganization of the Norwegian health care system and the introduction of one of Europe's most sophisticated data systems. As director of the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, he is now fostering imaginative programs in health planning for the European community.

Dr. Ivan L. Bennett, Jr.*
Dr. Bennett's record of distinguished national service in research, medical education, and the shaping of health policy included administrative posts as department director and acting director of the Office of Science and Technology.

Dr. Leighton E. Cluff
Princeton, New Jersey

Dr. Cluff is executive vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, where he carries out a broad range of policies designed to improve health care delivery systems. He has also made important contributions to research on infectious diseases.

Dr. John Thomas Grayhack
Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Grayhack is professor and chairman of the Department of Urology and director of the Kretschmer Laboratory at Northwestern University Medical School. He is one of the nation's leading urologists, and his research has broadly advanced the detection and treatment of prostatic and bladder diseases.

Dr. Merel H. Harmel
Durham, North Carolina

The first anesthesiology resident at Hopkins, Dr. Harmel is professor in the Department of Anesthesiology at the Duke University Medical Center. A leader in the development of anesthesiology, he has served three major universities as anesthesiology chairman.

Dr. Horace Louis Hodes*
Dr. Hodes was Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Blending research and clinical service, he contributed to the basic understanding of the structure and behavior of viruses, and was a role model for many young physicians.

Dr. Thomas P. Hughes
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania A scholar in the history of 19th- and 20th-century technology, Dr. Hughes is the author of two landmark publications about the nature of technological change: Elmer Sperry - Inventor and Engineer and Networks of Power - Electrification of Western Society 1880-1930.

Dr. Ingo Muller
Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany

Dr. Muller is an authority on thermodynamics, including irreversible processes and relativistic thermodynamics. His influential publications are widely cited and used, both in this country and in Europe.

Dr. David C. Sabiston, Jr.
Durham, North Carolina

A leading figure in cardiac surgery, Dr. Sabiston has produced important research in the physiology of coronary circulation and in myocardial metabolism, and has performed pioneering work in the development of coronary artery bypass grafts.

Dr. Mikio Shikita
Chiba-shi, Japan

Dr. Shikita directs chemical pharmacology at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. His research has attracted worldwide attention in his field and has led to a better understanding of many aspects of steroid biochemistry and radiation protection.

Dr. Te Pao Wang
Shanghai, China

While at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Wang carried out pioneering studies in an area of biochemistry that became important in developing basic approaches to modern enzymology. His recent research, on the structure and function of transfer RNAs, culminated in the synthesis of several transfer RNAs and is recognized throughout the world as an important contribution to molecular biology and biochemistry.

Dr. James J. Whalen
Buffalo, New York

Dr. Whalen's research has been of great importance in developing compact, complex computers through the study of electromagnetic compatibility and of fault tolerance in electronic devices and circuits.

Dr. Henry I. Yamamura
Tucson, Arizona

Dr. Yamamura is a leader in psychopharmacology. His studies of receptor sites in the brain and his work with clin-ical colleagues have added substantially to the studies of neurotransmitter abnormalities in such brain diseases as Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases.


Dr. Guillermo Arbona
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

As secretary of health for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Dr. Arbona developed a regional system of health service delivery, providing effective treatment to a low-income population in an area subject to tropical disease.

Dr. Charles C.J. Carpenter
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Carpenter's early research was on the role of the renin-angiotensin system in control of aldosterone secretion. He also has made major contributions to the knowledge of cholera, with particular emphasis on its therapeutic management.

Dr. David B. Clark
Lexington, Kentucky

Recognized nationally as one of the most gifted teachers in clinical neurology, Dr. Clark has also helped shape the development of child neurology, using the tools of neurology and the neuro-sciences to study the developmental problems of the human nervous system.

Dr. Francis R. Hama
Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany

Dr. Hama has been a pioneer experimenter in the instability of subsonic and supersonic laminar boundary layer flows along solid surfaces, and on their transition to turbulent flow, developing efficient devices for hastening the transition and carrying out analyses important to understanding curved vortices.

Dr. Joseph E. Johnson III
Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Dr. Johnson, whose research contributions to the study of staphylococcal infections and adverse drug reactions are well-known, has also published extensively on the amplified migration inhibition effect and pulmonary host defense mechanisms. Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Wake Forest University, he has served as president of the Association of Professors of Medicine.

Professor Peter J. Parish
London, England

Internationally recognized as a scholar of American history, Professor Parish has received special praise for his book The American Civil War. At the time of his election to the society, he was at work on an introductory text on American history, intended particularly for non-American students.

Dr. Stephen Joseph Ryan, Jr.
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Ryan is one of the outstanding investigators in ophthalmology, specializing in macular diseases and retinal detachment. Since 1974 he has been chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Southern California, and since 1977 medical director of the Doheny Eye Foundation.

Dr. Asher P. Schick
Jerusalem, Israel

Dr. Schick is a world authority on the hydrology and geomorphology of true desert basins with low annual precipitation. His knowledge, acquired over 18 years of a continuous measurement program in small desert catchments in the mountains of Israel, constitutes the basis for qualitative comparisons of landforms from arid to tropical regions.

Dr. Donald W. Simborg
San Francisco, California

Dr. Simborg has developed computer-based approaches to the investigation of cardiac arrhythmias and has devised computer-based solutions to many biomedical problems. An early advocate of modular systems implemented on minicomputers and integrated by networking, he is an expert in clinical information systems.

Dr. Frank Cole Spencer
New York, New York

Dr. Spencer has achieved widespread acclaim for his contributions to cardiac surgery, especially coronary artery bypass surgery. He has also developed major advances in such diverse areas as the operative prevention of pulmonary emboli, the treatment of complications of acute pancreatitis, and the management of liver abscess and liver trauma.

Dr. Newman Lloyd Stephens
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Dr. Stephens' research on the velocity of muscle shortening and the events involved in relaxation using certain pharmacological agents is applicable to areas of airways disease, such as asthma. It also provides the foundation for the understanding of smooth muscle behavior to antigen challenge, and the alteration of this behavior by drugs.

Dr. Paul D. Stolley
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

An epidemiologist, Dr. Stolley has helped develop the field known as pharmaco-epidemiology, which uses epidemiological methods to identify possible adverse effects of drugs. He has also been active in helping to formulate guidelines for the use of drugs both in this country and abroad.

Dr. Harry L. Swinney
Austin, Texas

Dr. Swinney has made major advances in the study of turbulence and the instabilities in both chemical and hydro- dynamic systems. His detailed studies of the critical phenomena in fluids have led to a more complete understanding of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Similar detailed studies of fluid flows and chemical reactions have changed the understanding of the apparently random behavior of systems of many particles.


Dr. Mordhay Avron*
Dr. Avron contributed extensively to the study of photosynthesis, especially in identifying the coupling between photo-induced electron transport and the synthesis of ATP, the universal energy currency of living systems.

Dr. Ross J. Baldessarini
Belmont, Massachusetts

Internationally recognized for his work in psychopharmacology, Dr. Baldessarini has played an important part in integrating basic neurochemical and neuropharmacologic research into clinical psychiatry, through both his research and his writings.

Dr. Shao-chiung Cheng
Beijing, People's Republic of China

For more than 50 years, Dr. Cheng has contributed to the control of disease in animals in China. After early work on diagnostic antigens he turned to the development and evaluation of vaccines to control rinderpest, a disease of cattle. By 1957 this disease, which had killed millions of animals yearly in China, had been totally eradicated.

Dr. Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith
Glasgow, Scotland

Dr. Ferguson-Smith's work was instrumental in clarifying the clinical and cytogenetic features of Klinefelter syndrome, and he was among the first investigators to successfully use depletion mapping of human chromosomes.

Dr. Joseph J. Ferretti
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

A leader in the genetic analysis of pathogenic streptococci, Dr. Ferretti has also contributed to the assay of toxins and the genetic basis for toxin formation by bacteria. His work on the basic mechanism responsible for antibiotic resistance in streptococci has special clinical value.

Dr. Carlos Luis Gonzalez
Caracas, Venezuela

Dr. Gonzalez has had a distinguished career in public health, exemplified by his extensive work with the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. His studies of the comparative mortality experience of populations in North and South America represented a major contribution to the understanding of problems of health and disease in the Americas.

Dr. Richard B. Hornick
Rochester, New York

Dr. Hornick has made important contributions in the field of infectious diseases, especially the study of typhoid fever. His widely recognized leadership ability has resulted in numerous appointments to editorial review boards and oversight committees.

Dr. Julius R. Krevans
San Francisco, California

An active contributor to the field of hematology, Dr. Krevans has also been an influential spokesman in medical education. The broad view he has expressed on the structure of health care systems has gained him a prominent role in both national and international discussions of this important topic.

Dr. Dwight C. McGoon
Rochester, New York

Dr. McGoon has gained an international reputation in the field of cardiac surgery. His prominence in this area has been demonstrated by his election to leadership positions in a number of national surgical associations.

Dr. David L. Miller
London, England

Dr. Miller's interest in infectious diseases, particularly in acute respiratory infections, has led to his increasingly important role in British public health. Recently, Dr. Miller has been actively involved in assessing the benefits of pertussis vaccination, and in the WHO program for control of active respiratory diseases.

Dr. David E. Rogers*
President of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Dr. Rogers is a leader in the fields of medical education and research. His own research has resulted in major contributions to the understanding of complications inherent in influenza epidemics, the basic biology of the staphylococcus botulism, and the understanding of histoplasmosis.

Dr. Hiroyuki Suga
Osaka, Japan

With a rare combination of physiological scholarship and biomedical engineering talent, Dr. Suga has gained an international reputation in cardiovascular dynamics. His detailed studies of system parameters, associated with cardiac function, have led to new views of the most appropriate measurements to indicate the health of the heart.

Dr. Piero Villaggio
Pisa, Italy

Dr. Villaggio's research has covered many areas in solid mechanics, and his work in the field of classical elasticity is particularly important. Organizing the mathematical work on the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, he has illustrated how this structure can be used to improve understanding of practical elastic phenomena.


Dr. Maurice M. Bursey
Chapel Hill, North Carolina

A chemist, Dr. Bursey has conducted extensive research in ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry, and has developed laser-assisted field desorption as a technique for thermally labile molecules.

Dr. J. Michael Criley
Torrance, California

Combining his skills as a photographer and as a cardiac physiologist, Dr. Criley has elucidated many cardiac con-ditions, including the use of X-ray motion pictures to clar-ify the physiology of closed-chest cardiac resuscitation.

Dr. Carlos Eyzaquirre
Salt Lake City, Utah

Beginning with his study of fiber types in Hering's nerve, Dr. Eyzaquirre has contributed to the understanding of the carotid body. He later extended his work to include studies of the presence of acetycholine in the carotid body and its response to exogenous application of this neurotransmitter.

Dr. Hans Fuchtbauer
Bochum, West Germany

As one of the world's preeminent sedimentologists, Dr. Fuchtbauer has elucidated the mode of formation of a variety of sediments from evaporates to sandstones. He has also contributed significantly to the literature of carbonate geochemistry.

Dr. Robert S. Gordon, Jr.*
Dr. Gordon's desire to apply his research on gastrointestinal physiology to practical public health problems led to his pioneering work on cholera in Dacca. While working in the office of the director of the National Institutes of Health, he encouraged the development of survey research as an important element in providing cost-effective health care.

Dr. Marvin A. Griffin*
Dr. Griffin applied operations research to a variety of problems, from efficient telemetry of data to industrial application of transportation queuing. He also actively contributed to the use of simulated systems by managers.

Dr. C. Rollins Hanlon
Chicago, Illinois

As director of the American College of Surgeons since 1969, Dr. Hanlon, a cardio-thoracic surgeon, has effectively promoted the unity of surgery and the surgical specialties in shaping health policies.

Dr. Elizabeth Dexter Hay
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Hay has helped focus the attention of developmental biologists on the inductive role of the extracellular matrix during embryogenesis. In addition to her research, she has provided leadership on the national level by serving as editor-in-chief for a major journal and as president of two major professional societies.

Dr. Gordon L. Kane
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Kane is highly regarded among physicists for his analyses of experiments crucial to understanding new theoretical approaches to elementary particle physics-analyses that demonstrate his ability to understand the subtle aspects of theoretical and experiential work in this field.

Dr. David M. Kipnis
St. Louis, Missouri

An outstanding physician and scientist, Dr. Kipnis has performed valuable research on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in health and disease, particularly diabetes. In 1981 his work earned him election to the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Carl Kupfer
Bethesda, Maryland

Dr. Kupfer is internationally known for his studies in pathogenesis of glaucoma and the experimental pharmacology of the control of intraocular pressure. As director of the National Eye Institute, he also was instrumental in promoting an effective study of the role of photocoagulation in treating diabetic retinopathy.

Dr. Leonard T. Kurland
Rochester, New York

Dr. Kurland's application of epidemiological methods to neurological diseases led to an elucidation of the influence of environmental factors in the development of neurologic disorders. His work has also led to valuable studies of cancer, digestive diseases, and vascular diseases.

Dr. Harry Orlinsky*
A biblical scholar, Dr. Orlinsky translated ancient texts for Jewish and Christian readers with particular attention to maintaining accuracy and faithfulness to the original texts. He also wrote extensively on interpretations of the ancient texts, drawing on history and archaeology to support his analyses.

Dr. Francine V. Schrijen
Cedex, France

Dr. Schrijen has focused her research on the effect of respiratory diseases on pulmonary blood flow and on systemic circulation, using animal and clinical studies to investigate the interrelations between respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary circulation, and systemic circulation.


Dr. Erwin H. Ackerknecht*
A historian of medicine, Dr. Ackerknecht is best known for his Short History of Medicine and Short History of Psychiatry. His monograph "Malaria in the Upper Mississippi Valley" has influenced students of U.S. history as well as students of the history of medicine.

Dr. Henry T. Bahnson
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Bahnson was a pioneer in vascular and cardiothoracic surgery and has made significant contributions to surgery in both acquired and congenital heart disease.

Professor Genevi E8ve Compte-Bellot
Ecully, France

Professor Compte-Bellot is one of the world's leading experimentalists in fluid mechanics and acoustics. In addition to her work in turbulence and two-dimensional models of fluid motion, she has assumed national administrative responsibilities in France.

Dr. Wilbur Downs*
Dr. Downs' studies of malaria and arboviruses have greatly expanded our knowledge of these infections. Dr. Downs was also active as a consultant on a wide range of international health problems.

Dr. Leon Eisenberg
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Eisenberg has helped to raise child psychiatry to its present distinguished position in American clinical medicine. His own work has focused on the issues of minimal brain dysfunction, accurate diagnosis, and hyperkinetic children.

Dr. Clarence V. Hodges
Kailwa-Kona, Hawaii

With Dr. Charles Huggins, Dr. Hodges co-authored the first paper to describe the profound effects of hormonal manipulation on patients suffering from disseminated prostatic cancer. His career continued to highlight research on the prostate gland, work which earned him national recognition.

Dr. Theodor Koller
Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Koller helped to develop procedures permitting the direct electron-microscopic study of DNA's interaction with protein molecules. These techniques have been used to advance understanding of how information is transcribed from DNA into RNA.

Dr. Thomas W. Langfitt
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Internationally recognized for his basic research in the pathophysiology of head injury, Dr. Langfitt has played a central role in the understanding of increased intracranial pressure and its effects on brain function.

Dr. Sherman M. Mellinkoff
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Mellinkoff has conducted important research in gastroenterology, and his studies of amino acid metabolism in liver disease and of familial Mediterranean fever have been highly influential. His tenure as dean of the UCLA medical school has been marked by the emergence of that institution as one of the country's leading medical schools.

Dr. Baruch Modan
Tel Hashomer, Israel

Dr. Modan's epidemiological studies of the effects of radiation have added to our knowledge of the reaction of tissue to ionizing radiation. He has also studied polycythemia vera, and these studies played an important role in reevaluating the methods of treatment of this disease.

Dr. John Van Sickle
New York, New York

A classicist of wide-ranging interests and considerable achievement, Dr. Van Sickle's work on the recently discovered text of Archilochus has attracted international attention. His study of Virgil's Bucolics and his work on Augustan "poetry books" have also been recognized for their superior quality.

Dr. Paul Wehrle
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Wehrle has played a leading role in the management of communicable diseases, including WHO's successful smallpox eradication campaign. His research has encompassed diseases from smallpox to polio and meningitis.


Dr. Mary Ellen Avery
Wellesley, Massachusetts

Dr. Avery is known for her work in the physiology and pathology of pulmonary diseases of newborns and infants. In particular, her research has led to the demonstration of the underlying pathophysiology in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

Dr. Edward Grzegorzewski*
Poland's delegate to the founding conference of the World Health Organization, Dr. Grzegorzewski joined the World Health Organization (WHO) shortly after its formation. He was highly influential in curriculum development and physician training to address problems in preventive medicine.

Dr. David H. Hubel
Boston, Massachusetts

With Dr. Torsten Wiesel, Dr. Hubel conducted innovative studies of the visual system at the cellular level. These studies, which have resulted in an understanding of how the brain is organized to process visual information, earned Drs. Hubel and Wiesel the 1981 Nobel Prize in medicine.

Dr. Frank M. Leslie
Glasgow, Scotland

An early worker in the field of liquid crystals, Dr. Leslie is now recognized as an international authority on this subject, contributing to the literature on thermal, magnetic, and hydrodynamic properties of liquid crystals.

Dr. Attilio Maseri
London, England

Dr. Maseri has earned a preeminent position in the field of cardiology through his work in coronary artery disease. His work on the role of coronary vasospasm in producing myocardial ischemia has led to widespread recognition of the significance of this problem in humans.

Dr. Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr.
Stanford, California

Through innovative assessments of the relationships between a variety of risk factors and subsequent disease, Dr. Paffenbarger has contributed to the knowledge of the epidemiology of disease, including infectious diseases such as diarrheal diseases and polio, as well as mental and cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

Dr. H. William Scott, Jr.
Nashville, Tennessee

A surgeon of the highest standing, Dr. Scott has contributed to medical procedures for morbid obesity, peptic ulceration, and vascular surgery. He has also assumed a leadership role in academic surgery, serving in an official capacity in many professional organizations.

Dr. Wayne O. Southwick
New Haven, Connecticut

As a professor of orthopedic surgery at Yale University, Dr. Southwick is known for his rigorous teaching program. As a researcher, he has made many important contributions to surgery of the cervical spine and to practical biomechanics of the injured spine. Professor Fran E7ois Stoll Zurich, Switzerland Dr. Stoll has focused his research in applied psychology on the study of eye movements and scanning patterns and the ways in which those patterns can be used to improve reading mechanisms. He has also studied the cognitive underpinnings of reading skills.

Dr. Albert Stunkard
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Stunkard has acquired an international reputation in the study of psychiatric aspects of feeding and obesity. He has charted the effects of such social influences as food choice in public places and cultural ideals of proper weight.

Dr. Kameshwar C. Wali
Syracuse, New York

A theoretical high-energy physicist who has always worked closely with experimentalists, Professor Wali has published in a wide range of areas including form factors, SU (6), continuum theory, local duality and monopole theories with strings.

Dr. Torsten N. Wiesel
New York, New York

With Dr. David Hubel, Dr. Wiesel conducted innovative studies of the visual system at the cellular level. These studies, which have resulted in an understanding of how the brain is organized to process visual information, earned Drs. Wiesel and Hubel the 1981 Nobel Prize in medicine.


Dr. Konrad Akert
Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Akert, whose postdoctoral studies at Hopkins were in the Department of Physiology and Neurosurgery, has done research on experimental epilepsy, focal cortical seizures, the function of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in the control of movement, and the study of synaptic action as a function of time.

Dr. K. Frank Austen
Boston, Massachusetts

Work at Johns Hopkins in the early 1960s laid the foundation for Dr. Austen's studies of the mechanisms and mediators of immediate type hypersensitivity and of the complement system. He has been especially effective in providing a bridge between fundamental biochemistry of the mediator systems and their role in health and disease.

Dr. George W.A. Dick*
West Sussex, England

An epidemiologist, Dr. Dick has received numerous prizes and medals for his work in the virology of encephalitis, polio, hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, smallpox, whooping cough and the development of combined vaccines. His work with virus diseases including yellow fever, Mengovirus, and Marburgvirus has won widespread attention.

Dr. Thorstein Guthe*
Internationally famous as a microbiologist, Dr. Guthe has played a major role in studies of the epidemiological characteristics of occupationally related cancer.

Dr. Leo A. Kaprio
Copenhagen, Denmark

Serving on the scientific staff of the World Health Organization from the early years of that organization, Dr. Kaprio has pursued a distinguished career as an administrator in the field of international health.

Dr. Gunther Maier
Lahn-Giesseni, Federal Republic of Germany

Active in the synthesis of organic compounds, Dr. Maier has succeeded in isolating synthetically produced stable tetrahedrane and stable cyclobutadiene, compounds of great importance to theoretical chemistry because they challenge commonly held concepts of structure.

Dr. Michael P. McQuillen
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

As an academic and a neurologist, Dr. McQuillen has focused his research on myasthenia gravis and human neuromuscular disorders.

Dr. William H. Muller, Jr.
Charlottesville, Virginia

Dr. Muller's work in cardiac surgery, particularly on pulmonary hypertension in congenital cardiac disease, has made him a leader among American academic surgeons. Through his association with the American College of Surgeons, he has contributed to the development of surgical education on a national scale.

Dr. Susan A. Narang
Ottawa, Canada

Dr. Narang developed a modified triester method of synthesis for important polynucleotides, making possible the synthesis of biologically active operator DNA. These techniques have also been used to produce human insulin in bacteria, thus making available human proteins of medicinal importance.

Dr. Walther Noll
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Noll's approach to continuum mechanics through the use of abstract algebraic concepts, the principles of invariance, and functional analysis has influenced the evolution of modern mechanics.

Dr. Anthony E. Pegg
Hershey, Pennsylvania

Dr. Pegg performed important research on enzymatic pathways for the biosynthesis of polyamines, the hormonal control of mitochondrial protein synthesis, and the androgenic regulation of polyamine production in the prostate gland.

Dr. David Smith*
A leader in the field of dysmorphology, Dr. Smith contributed to the understanding of embryologic derangement leading to congenital defects. He also made important contributions to the description of fetal alcohol syndrome, a problem whose magnitude has only recently been appreciated.


Dr. Arthur Adel*
Dr. Adel pioneered the investigation of the infrared region of the solar spectrum, discovering the presence of many trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere, including nitrous oxide.

Dr. Robert Austrian
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

An investigator of the molecular structure and biological characteristics of pneumo- coccus, Dr. Austrian has participated in the effort to develop a vaccine to prevent pneumonia.

Sir John Brotherston*
Knighted in 1974 by Queen Elizabeth for his many accomplishments in medicine and public health, Dr. Brotherston focused on preventive and community medicine. He also published many scholarly works on the history of medicine and public health.

Dr. Constantine M. Dafermos
Providence, Rhode Island

Dr. Dafermos' research in non-linear analysis of mechanical problems, including solid mechanics and shock waves, has displayed his ability to define the physical assumptions underlying the governing mathematical equations.

Dr. Dorland J. Davis*
Dr. Davis conducted major research in the fields of infectious diseases, particularly trypanosomiasis, psittacosis, hepatitis, and influenza.

Dr. Willard E. Goodwin
Los Angeles, California

A pioneer in the use of intestinal segments to reconstruct the urinary tract, Dr. Goodwin was one of the first urologists to engage in transplantation and is credited with the first use of corticosteroids for treating homograft rejection in human transplantation. Dr. Samir Najjar Beirut, Lebanon A specialist in pediatric endocrinology, Dr. Najjar established an outstanding department of pediatrics at the American University in Beirut.

Dr. Kenneth L. Pickrell*
Highly regarded for his expertise in the clinical practice of plastic surgery, Dr. Pickrell was an influential teacher of plastic surgeons and an international spokesperson for the field.

Dr. Oscar D. Ratnoff
Shaker Heights, Ohio

A professor of medicine at Case Western Reserve Medical School, Dr. Ratnoff was recognized as one of the world's experts in problems relating to the coagulation of blood.

Dr. Ray Trussel
New York, New York

For many years a leader in the delivery of preventive medical care, Dr. Trussel designed and developed a prototype of the health maintenance organization. He has also contributed to the fields of microbiology and epidemiology. Dr Verna Wright Leeds, England Pursuing a long-term interest in rheumatology, Dr. Wright has studied the mechanism of joint stiffness, extending that research to the management of patients with arthritis.


Dr. Ko Kuei Chen*
Director of pharmacological research for Eli Lilly until his retirement in 1963, Dr. Chen isolated ephedrine from the herb Ma Huang and participated in its introduction to clinical use in the West. He also played a central role in developing a treatment for cyanide poisoning.

Dr. William H. Craib*
Dr. Craib revolutionized the interpretation of electrocardiograms through the rigorous application of mathematical and physical principles. Dr. John Knutson* While working with the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Knutson helped to develop and refine indices of dental disease. After his retirement, he was instrumental in forming the curriculum of the University of California's Dental School.

Dr. Frank McCapra
Falmer Brighton, England

Dr. McCapra has made important investigations in organic chemistry, the structure of antibiotics, the biosynthesis of alkaloids, and the mechanisms of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence.

Dr. Chamseddine M. Mofidi
Tehran, Iran

A major contributor to the field of tropical medicine and parasitology, Dr. Mofidi was awarded the Shousha Award by the World Health Organization in 1971.

Dr. Loren Pfeiffer
Morristown, New Jersey

Dr. Pfeiffer has studied the M F6ssbauer Effect and its use in the study of perturbations of nuclei in solids, the behavior of positrons in solids, and the detection of solar neutrinos.

Dr. Sami I. Said
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Dr. Said has been in the forefront of research on the metabolic functions of the lung and also is particularly recognized for his work on the vasoacti ve intestinal peptide.

Dr. Robert H. Williams*
Dr. Williams was a specialist in endocrinology, particularly the metabolic problems of diabetes mellitus. Among his many honors was the Minot Award of the American Medical Association.

Dr. Edward C. Zipf
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Zipf has been a major contributor to the understanding of the molecular physics involved in planetary atmospheres. His highly regarded laboratory program in molecular interactions has supported important rocket research on the aurora borealis.


Dr. Leroy Burney
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

In the early stage of his career, Dr. Burney did research in venereal disease and therapy. He later became surgeon general of the U.S. Public Health Service.

Dr. Jackson I. Cope
Los Angeles, California

A leading authority on Renaissance drama, Dr. Cope has published many scholarly and influential books in the field.

Dr. Jacques Genest
Montreal, Canada

Dr. Genest is a highly regarded expert on renal physiology, an area in which he has conducted important clinical research.

Dr. Michael Kammen
Ithaca, New York

A professor of history at Cornell University, Dr. Kammen won the Pulitzer Prize in American history in 1973 for his book People of Paradox.

Dr. Fritz Kurt Kneubuhl
Zurich, Switzerland

An expert in infrared physics, Dr. Kneubuhl has conducted investigations in spectroscopy and laser research in the submillimeter and infrared region.

Dr. Seiichi Matsumoto*
Dr. Matsumoto was professor in the Institute for Virus Research of Kyoto University, where he studied the morphology of viruses, particularly of rabies viruses.

Dr Henry Gerard Schwartz
St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Schwartz was professor of neurosurgery at Washington University School of Medicine and surgeon-in-chief of the Barnes and Allied Hospitals in St. Louis.

Dr. Milton Terris
South Burlington, Vermont

Dr. Terris is an authority on epidemiology, with special emphasis on research into the epidemiology of cancer.

Dr. David J. Weatherall
Oxford, England

A professor of clinical medicine at Oxford University, Dr. Weatherall is an expert in the fields of hematology and genetics.


Dr. Harry Eagle*
The importance of Dr. Eagle's research on both syphilis and the growth requirements of cells in culture can be measured by the fact that a serological test for syphilis and a tissue culture medium bear his name.

Dr. Robert H. Felix*
The first director of the National Institute of Mental Health, Dr. Felix developed procedures for the awarding of research funds that set the pattern for government support of scientific ventures. He was also among the first to recognize psychiatric illness as a public health problem.

Dr. Elisabeth Liefmann-Keil*
Dr. Liefmann-Keil was one of the most distinguished German economists in the field of social policy, and was an influential adviser to West German governments in economics and social policy.

Dr. Maclyn McCarty
New York, New York

Dr. McCarty is highly regarded for his studies in the transformation of pneucoccal types, C-reactive protein, the biology and immunochemistry of streptococci, and the nature of rheumatic fever.

Dr. Carlos Monge
Lima, Peru

A widely respected authority in renal physiology, Dr. Monge is a professor of medicine at Cayetano Heredia University in Lima. Dr. Marjorie Nicholson* A student of Professor O.A. Lovejoy, Dr. Nicholson was herself a respected literary teacher and scholar, writing such books as Microscope and English Imagination, Breaking of the Circle, and Science and Imagination.

Dr. Mark Ravitch*
Dr. Ravitch was internationally renowned as a general, thoracic, and children's surgeon. He helped investigate many innovative techniques - including correction of pectus excavatum chest deformities and the use of mechanical stapling devices in major operations.

Dr. Merrill I. Skolnik
A national authority on radar, Dr. Skolnik published widely in the fields of radar, antennas, and gaseous electronics. Dr. Roger C. Walker Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Dr. Walker is known for his studies of the sedimentology of clastic rock, emphasizing the interpretation of sedimentary structures and facies, the lateral and vertical relationships of facies, and hence the reconstruction of ancient environments of deposition.

Dr. Myron E. Wegman
Ann Arbor, Michigan

In his extensive career in medical education and public health, Dr. Wegman has served as director of research and training for the New York City Health Department, as secretary general of the Pan American Health Organization, and as dean of the University of Michigan's School of Public Health.

Dr. C. Gordon Zubrod
Key Biscayne, Florida

Dr. Zubrod, who directed the Division of Cancer Treatment at the National Cancer Institute, brought cancer chemotherapy closer to the cure of leukemia and Hodgkin's disease, gaining its fuller acceptance as a tool in the control of all forms of cancer.


Dr. Dana W. Atchley*
Dr. Atchley was a professor of clinical medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, and recognized for his work on chemical problems in internal medicine, edema, and nephritis.

Dr. Eugene Braunwald
Boston, Massachusetts

A world leader in cardiovascular research, Dr. Braunwald was chief of the cardiology division at the National Heart Institute from 1960 to 1967. He has received numerous honors and awards throughout his career, including the Distinguished Research Achievement Award of the American Heart Association.

Dr. Marcolino Candau*
After graduating from the School of Hygiene and Public Health of Johns Hopkins and working as a public health official in his native Brazil, Dr. Candau joined the World Health Organization, serving as its director for almost two decades.

Dr. Lyman C. Craig*
A biochemist, Dr. Craig studied the structure of a number of important medical agents, including lysergic acid. As the inventor of the Craig machine for countercurrent distribution, he made an indispensable contribution to the anti-malarial effort by permitting the assay of impure preparations, which led in turn to the development of protein chemistry.

Dr. Phyllis M. Deane
Cambridge, England

Phyllis M. Deane is presently a reader in the Department of Economics and Politics at the University of Cambridge. She is an important contributor to two areas of empirical economics and economic history: the growth of the British economy since 1688, and national economic accounting. Dr. Deane is the author and editor of numerous books and articles.

Dr. Earl A. Evans, Jr.
Chicago, Illinois

As a biochemist at the University of Chicago, Dr. Evans conducted research on the mechanism of virus reproduction, the chemistry of insulin, the etiology of tetanus poisoning, and the metabolism of the malaria parasite.

Dr. Harold J. Evans
Corvallis, Oregon

Dr. Evans is a major contributor to the study of plant physiology. Among his many achievements is the Hoblitzelle National Award he earned for research on the need for and biochemical role of cobalt in organisms that fix nitrogen.

Dr. Arnaldo Gabaldon
Caracas, Venezuela

Dr. Gabaldon, who received his doctorate from the School of Public Health in 1935, has established an international reputation in the field of malaria control and eradication. A major force for the improvement of general health services in his native Venezuela, he has worked closely with the World Health Organization on many disease problems.

Dr. Thomas P.S. Powell*
An investigator of neuro-anatomy, Dr. Powell contributed to the understanding of the systems' connectivity within the central nervous system. Through his training of, and collaboration with, students and younger colleagues, Dr. Powell's influence has been worldwide.

Dr. Helen Van Vunakis
Waltham, Massachusetts

Dr. Van Vunakis has carried out extensive basic research on the structure of enzymes and their precursors, on bacterial viruses, and on the use of immunological procedures to detect small changes in nucleic acids.


No new members were inducted into the society in 1973.


Dr. Ray M. Bowen
Houston, Texas

Dr. Bowen was first to attack the extremely difficult problem of extending the concepts of rational thermodynamics to mixtures of diffusing, chemically reacting substances. The modern theory of non-equilibrium thermochemistry is based in significant part on his work.

Dr. Ezechiel G.D. Cohen
New York, New York

Dr. Cohen is professor of physics at Rockefeller University in New York, where his investigations in statistical physics have earned him widespread recognition.

Dr. David A.P. Evans
London, England

Dr. Evans' research and writ-ings have been influential in the field of pharmacogenetics.

Dr. J. Deryl Hart*
A nationally recognized surgeon, Dr. Hart was a professor of surgery at Duke University, of which institution he later became president.

Dr. Anna Martta Hietenan-Makela
Menlo Park, California

A specialist in petrology, structural geology, metamorphism, and metasomatism, Dr. Hietenan-Makela has distinguished herself in both field and laboratory work. After teaching at both Stanford University and Oregon State University, she served with the U.S. Geological Survey.

Dr. Abraham Horowitz
Chevy Chase, Maryland

Dr. Horowitz drafted plans for Chile's national health service, later becoming its first director general. In 1960 he became director of the Pan American Health Organization, where he served with distinction for many years.

Dr. George James*
As deputy commissioner and then commissioner of health with the New York State Health Department and as a medical educator, Dr. James contributed greatly through his writings to the fields of epidemiology and health administration.

Dr. Lawrence C. Kolb
Glenmont, New York

As professor of psychiatry and chairman of psychiatry at Columbia University, Dr. Kolb made important contributions to his field both as an investigator and as an administrator.

Dr. Alexander Langmuir
Chilmark, Massachusetts

Dr. Langmuir was the first director of the epidemiology program of the Communicable Disease Center of the U.S. Public Health Service (now known as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and later director of the center itself. He has written extensively on all phases of epidemiology on a global basis.

Dr. Robert Q. Marston
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Marston has made notable accomplishments in medical administration and education, serving as director of the National Institutes of Health and president of the University of Florida.

Dr. Chao-Cheng Wang
Houston, Texas

A mathematician of distinction, Dr. Wang has published widely and with great influence on general continuum mechanics, fluid crystals, memory principles, elasticity, dislocation theory, wave propagation, thermodynamics, and other subjects.

Dr. William H. Wriggins
Bronx, New York

Dr. Wriggins has made important contributions to the study of government within emerging states, notably with his book The Ruler's Imperative.


Dr. Bernard Becker
St. Louis, Missouri

A leader in American ophthalmology, Dr. Becker is widely known for his important contributions to understanding the pathological mechanisms in glaucoma and for his discovery of new methods of treatment.

Dr. Francis P. Chinard
Montclair, New Jersey

Dr. Chinard has made valuable contributions in renal physiology and biochemistry, using radioactive metabolites to study a variety of renal and pulmonary processes important for the regulation of a constant internal ionic environment.

Dr. Ernest W. Lefever
Chevy Chase, Maryland

Dr. Lefever is generally recognized as a national leader in the field of foreign policy research, a position evidenced by the very high quality and wide breadth of his writings.

Dr. Thomas H. Maren
Gainesville, Florida

Dr. Maren has carried out many important pharmaco-logical investigations on the action of sulfonamides and the ability of certain compounds to inhibit carbonic anhydrase. This work led to a series of brilliant investigations of renal physiology.

Dr. Hans J. Morgenthau*
Dr. Morgenthau was an influential scholar of American foreign policy. Among the universities with which he was associated were the University of Chicago and City College of New York.

Dr. James E. Perkins*
A prominent epidemiologist, Dr. Perkins received many honors for his contributions to infectious disease problems, particularly tuberculosis. He was also active in international health initiatives.

Dr. Claud S. Rupert
Dallas, Texas

Dr. Rupert was a postdoctoral fellow in biochemistry at the School of Hygiene and Public Health when he discovered the photoreacting enzyme. Since that time, he has studied the way in which that enzyme repairs the damage in DNA induced by ultraviolet light.

Dr. Fred L. Soper*
Dr. Soper is credited with developing techniques of species eradication that exterminated a dangerous vector of malaria threatening all of tropical America. He also developed the eradication program that eliminated urban yellow fever from the Americas.

Dr. Heinrich P. Ursprung
Zurich, Switzerland

Truly exceptional in his breadth of knowledge and understanding of classical embryology and the chemical mechanics involved in the making of an embryo from an egg, Dr. Ursprung is also a gifted technician, teacher, and writer.


Dr. George P. Berry*
For many years Dr. Berry was dean of the Harvard University Medical School, where he established himself as an imaginative and vigorous leader in American education.

Dr. Miguel Covian
Sao Paulo, Brazil

As professor and head of the Department of Physiology in the medical school at Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paolo State, Brazil, Dr. Covian developed one of South America's leading departments of physiology.

Dr. Gabrielle Donnay*
A crystallographer, Dr. Donnay conducted research that led to the discovery of several crystal structures.

Dr. Sol Goodgal
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

A professor of microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Goodgal has made major contributions in the study of genetic transformation in bacteria.

Dr. John Woodland Hastings
Cambridge, Massachusetts

A professor of biology at Harvard University, Dr. Hastings was first to detail the function of the enzyme flavin in bacterial luminescence, and was later able to isolate and crystallize this enzyme.

Dr. Walter M. Holland
London, England

A professor in the Department of Community Medicine at St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School in London, Dr. Holland pioneered research on the effects of chronic bronchitis in infants and children.

Dr. Emile F. Holman*
Dr. Holman, was a professor of surgery at the Stanford University Medical School, and made important contributions in the field of vascular surgery.

Dr. I. Robert Lehman
Stanford, California

Dr. Lehman is a world authority on the biosynthesis, breakdown, and modification of nucleic acids.

Dr. Jotaro Masuzawa
Kamakura, Japan

One of Japan's leading oceanographers, Dr. Masuzawa has been the prime investigator of the Kuroshio, the North Pacific counterpart of the Gulf Stream.

Dr. Alfred R. Shands, Jr.*
Dr. Shands was surgeon-in-chief at the Alfred I. duPont Institute in Wilmington. His book on orthopedic surgery was a significant contribution to medical literature.

Dr. George W. Thorn
Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Thorn, who served as physician-in-chief at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, initiated the earliest work in human kidney transplantation.


Dr. Joseph Berkson*
For more than three decades, Dr. Berkson was one of America's foremost biometricians, enjoying a reputation as an outstanding scientific innovator, critic, and scholar.

Dr. James Bordley III*
Director of the Mary Imogene Basset Hospital in Cooperstown, New York, Dr. Bordley contributed significantly to medical research, primarily in the study of hypertension.

Dr. Edward J.M. Campbell
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Dr. Campbell has made important contributions in respiratory physiology and the mechanics of breathing.

Dr. Reuben M. Cherniak
Denver, Colorado

Medical director of the National Jewish Hospital in Denver, Dr. Cherniak is highly regarded for his administrative abilities as a medical educator and planner.

Dr. Leon E. Farhi
Buffalo, New York

Professor of physiology at State University of New York at Buffalo, Dr. Farhi has conducted extensive research in respiratory physiology.

Dr. Ralph Grasbeck
Helsinki, Finland

Dr. Grasbeck is widely recognized for his investigations into the mechanism of absorption of vitamin B-12 and his pioneering researches in the causes of pernicious anemia.

Dr. Charles A. Janeway*
Professor of pediatrics at Harvard and physician- in-chief at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston, Dr. Janeway was widely respected as one of the country's foremost pediatricians.

Dr. Chester S. Keefer*
Dr. Keefer was noted for his investigations of infectious diseases and his contributions to the nation's health as a frequent government adviser.

Dr. William P. Longmire, Jr.
Los Angeles, California

Dr. Longmire pursued a distinguished career in surgery - including a residency at Hopkins under Dr. Alfred Blalock - and conducted outstanding research in transplantation biology.

Dr. John L. Lumley
Ithaca, New York

Dr. Lumley has conducted theoretical and experimental research in the basic study of turbulent flow, and is well known for his pioneering measurements of turbulence in non-Newtonian liquids.

Dr. Paul E. Potter
Cincinnati, Ohio

Dr. Potter's creative and original application of statistical methods to geologic research and his field studies on sandstone in the Illinois basin have produced a masterful synthesis of that area's geologic history during late Paleozoic times.

Dr. Anthony G. San Pietro
Bloomington, Indiana

Dr. San Pietro has conducted important research in biochemistry, especially on photosynthesis, including the isolation of important organic intermediates in the photosynthetic process.

Dr. Barnes Woodhall*
Known for his investigations of chemotherapy and brain tumors, Dr. Woodhall was also a leader in medical education.

Dr. Clinton N. Woolsey*
An outstanding neurologist, Dr. Woolsey conducted extensive research in mapping the cortical sensory areas of the brain.

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